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BBC - The Blue Planet (5 of 8) - Seasonal Seas

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[INFORMATION] [AUTHOR] [SOURCE] [PRG] [FILEPATH] [DELAY] [CD TRACK] [COMMENT] [END INFORMATION] [SUBTITLE] [COLF]&HFFFFFF,[STYLE]no,[SIZE]18,[FONT]Arial 00:00:35.00,00:00:38.99 There are some seas where[br]fish swarm in millions... 00:00:41.01,00:00:45.00 and plankton blossoms[br]in vast clouds 00:00:48.01,00:00:52.01 The sheer quantity of life here[br]is unmatched anywhere in the oceans 00:01:00.03,00:01:04.02 These are the most productive[br]seas on earth 00:01:09.04,00:01:13.03 They are the Seasonal Seas 00:01:16.04,00:01:19.05 The Seasonal Seas border the[br]Temperate parts of the world, 00:01:19.05,00:01:23.04 where conditions change[br]through the year 00:01:30.06,00:01:34.05 The seasons also affect[br]the underwater world 00:01:36.06,00:01:40.06 The power of the sun[br]is constantly changing 00:01:43.07,00:01:47.06 In the far north during the Summer[br]there are long hours of sunlight, 00:01:48.07,00:01:52.07 but in Winter that dwindles and[br]eventually there can be weeks of darkness 00:01:55.08,00:01:59.07 The summers are warm and gentle,[br]the winters racked by savage storms 00:02:55.14,00:02:59.13 In conditions like this life of[br]any sort has to struggle to survive 00:03:05.15,00:03:09.14 January on Sable Island off the[br]coast of Nova Scotia in North America 00:03:11.16,00:03:15.15 Grey Seals have managed to get ashore[br]through the crashing breakers 00:03:24.17,00:03:28.16 Gales here can blow for days on end 00:03:47.19,00:03:51.20 Sable Island has the world's largest[br]colony of grey seals 00:03:51.20,00:03:55.19 100,000 come here to breed each year,[br]just when the weather is at its worst 00:04:03.21,00:04:06.21 To add insult to injury, the pups, 00:04:06.21,00:04:10.22 having suckled for only 18 days[br]are then abandoned 00:04:10.22,00:04:14.21 Their mothers must return to the[br]sea to find food for themselves 00:04:19.23,00:04:22.23 As yet unable to dive,[br]the pups are marooned 00:04:22.23,00:04:26.22 and sustained by nothing[br]except their fatty blubber 00:04:28.23,00:04:32.24 It will be five weeks before[br]they are strong enough to swim, 00:04:32.24,00:04:36.23 but by then it will be early spring[br]and the ocean will be teeming with food 00:04:52.26,00:04:56.25 By May, Spring has reached[br]the coasts of Scotland 00:05:00.27,00:05:03.27 Underwater it arrived rather earlier 00:05:03.27,00:05:07.26 During March, the seas had warmed enough[br]to trigger a magical transformation 00:05:21.29,00:05:25.29 These are Phytoplankton,[br]tiny floating algae, 00:05:25.29,00:05:27.29 each much smaller than a pinhead 00:05:27.29,00:05:31.29 And they multiply with amazing speed[br]to produce more annual growth 00:05:32.30,00:05:36.29 than all the plants on land put together[br]- 6 billion tonnes of it 00:05:40.31,00:05:44.31 This immense bloom spreads across[br]the face of the ocean 00:05:44.31,00:05:48.30 and within a couple of months turns[br]vast areas of it a dense green 00:05:54.32,00:05:58.32 Animal life reacts to[br]the blooming sea 00:05:58.32,00:06:00.33 Although these polyps look[br]like small anemones, 00:06:00.33,00:06:03.33 They're about to change[br]into something else 00:06:03.33,00:06:07.32 As they separate, they reveal[br]themselves to be tiny, common jellyfish 00:06:12.34,00:06:16.33 They are less than[br]3 millimetres across 00:06:19.35,00:06:23.34 Within a few months they will[br]have assembled into vast swarms 00:06:29.36,00:06:32.36 Minute copepods are part[br]of their staple diet 00:06:32.36,00:06:36.35 These appear every spring in vast numbers[br]and graze on the Phytoplankton bloom 00:06:42.37,00:06:46.37 Their beating legs create currents[br]that sweep the little algae 00:06:46.37,00:06:50.37 into the basket-like filters[br]around their mouths 00:06:53.38,00:06:57.38 On this microscopic scale,[br]water is so viscous that 00:06:57.38,00:07:01.38 the Phytoplankton can't swim[br]against the current 00:07:04.39,00:07:08.38 Whilst feeding, sensors on the copepod's[br]antennae give warning of dangers ahead 00:07:14.40,00:07:18.39 Lighting by lasers reveals that feeding[br]copepods leave wakes behind them, 00:07:19.41,00:07:23.40 rather like jet trails in the sky 00:07:41.43,00:07:43.43 Slightly larger floating predators 00:07:43.43,00:07:47.42 are able to use these trails[br]to find their prey 00:08:01.45,00:08:05.44 A close call - but some predators[br]are simply too large to avoid 00:08:14.46,00:08:18.45 Jellyfish! 00:08:19.47,00:08:23.46 They may appear to be delicate as well as[br]beautiful, but they are deadly hunters 00:09:03.51,00:09:07.51 With every pulse of the delicate[br]bells plankton-rich water 00:09:07.51,00:09:11.52 is drawn into their lacy throats[br]and pushed out again, 00:09:11.52,00:09:15.51 leaving behind copepods stuck[br]to the membranes 00:09:23.53,00:09:27.53 A single sea-nettle jellyfish[br]only a few centimetres 00:09:27.53,00:09:31.53 across can collect thousands[br]of copepods in a day 00:09:43.55,00:09:47.54 So the killing power of giants[br]like these is hard to estimate 00:09:54.56,00:09:57.56 Each of these jellyfish[br]weighs up to 30 kilos 00:09:57.56,00:10:01.56 and has tentacles stretching[br]over 8 metres 00:10:04.57,00:10:08.56 But there are even greater dangers[br]awaiting the copepods 00:10:10.58,00:10:14.57 By the late spring the baby common[br]jellyfish are fully grown 00:10:16.58,00:10:20.58 They gather in millions, forming[br]immense swarms hundreds of metres long, 00:10:21.59,00:10:25.58 which filter out all the small[br]planktonic animals in their path 00:11:14.64,00:11:17.64 Nevertheless, there are such[br]astronomic numbers of copepods 00:11:17.64,00:11:21.64 that enough will survive to[br]form swarms of their own 00:11:37.66,00:11:41.67 A basking shark 00:11:41.67,00:11:45.66 This huge eight tonne fish feeds[br]on plankton and nothing else 00:11:48.67,00:11:52.67 Every hour it filters a thousand[br]tonnes of seawater through its gills 00:11:57.68,00:12:00.69 Numbers of these shark appear when[br]the bloom is at its peak 00:12:00.69,00:12:04.68 and travel along those water currents[br]where the plankton is thickest 00:12:08.69,00:12:11.70 Even so, the supply of plankton[br]is so abundant 00:12:11.70,00:12:14.70 that another group of animals'[br]is able to share in the feast 00:12:14.70,00:12:18.69 - animals that live on the seafloor 00:12:22.71,00:12:26.70 Every centimetre of rock is covered[br]with invertebrates of some kind 00:12:27.71,00:12:30.72 - anemones, sea squirts,[br]Gorgonians, 00:12:30.72,00:12:34.71 all trapping plankton from[br]the passing water 00:13:15.76,00:13:19.75 Not all life in the Seasonal[br]Seas depends upon the plankton 00:13:21.77,00:13:23.77 It's early spring in[br]British Columbia 00:13:23.77,00:13:27.76 Seaweed has started to grow[br]slowly in the cold water 00:13:29.78,00:13:33.78 As the hours of sunlight[br]increase and the water warms, 00:13:33.78,00:13:37.77 these small plants turn[br]into great beds of bull kelp 00:13:48.79,00:13:52.80 The immense 30 metre long strands[br]have small gas filled floats 00:13:52.80,00:13:56.79 which keep them high in the water within[br]reach of the energy-giving sunlight 00:14:07.81,00:14:10.82 Further south the sunshine[br]is more powerful, 00:14:10.82,00:14:14.81 so here, on the coast of California,[br]the biggest kelp of all can grow 00:14:19.83,00:14:23.83 This is giant kelp and[br]by midsummer each plant 00:14:23.83,00:14:27.82 is growing in length by[br]nearly a metre a day 00:14:35.84,00:14:39.85 The main stem is fixed to[br]the bottom 35 metres below 00:14:39.85,00:14:43.84 by a small but immensely[br]strong holdfast 00:14:47.85,00:14:51.86 Fully grown, these gigantic plants[br]are a hundred metres long 00:14:51.86,00:14:55.85 and they form vast marine forests 00:14:56.86,00:15:00.86 Great schools of fish find[br]sanctuary here 00:15:06.87,00:15:10.88 These are blacksmith fish 00:15:10.88,00:15:13.88 They are plankton feeders[br]and whenever it seems safe 00:15:13.88,00:15:17.87 they head off into open water to[br]feed where the plankton is thickest 00:15:22.89,00:15:26.89 But at the first hint of danger... 00:15:26.89,00:15:30.89 ...they rush back to the[br]safety of the forest 00:15:34.90,00:15:38.89 Fish are not the only[br]creatures that shelter here 00:15:43.91,00:15:47.90 Californian sea otters gather in the kelp[br]forest to rest and snooze in safety 00:15:53.92,00:15:57.92 To prevent themselves being carried[br]away into dangerous open water, 00:15:57.92,00:15:59.93 where the big predators cruise, 00:15:59.93,00:16:03.92 they anchor themselves by winding[br]straps of kelp around their body 00:16:10.94,00:16:13.94 Sooner or later,[br]they have to find food 00:16:13.94,00:16:17.94 and that lies on the seabed[br]a long way below them 00:16:17.94,00:16:19.95 Sea otters, however,[br]can stay underwater for 00:16:19.95,00:16:23.94 up to 10 minutes and that's ample time[br]to find the shellfish they need 00:16:55.98,00:16:59.97 Many of the smaller creatures that live[br]in these forests, such as urchins, 00:17:00.99,00:17:04.98 graze on the kelp and can seriously damage[br]it if their numbers are unchecked 00:17:05.99,00:17:08.99 The sea otters, however,[br]feed on some of these grazers 00:17:08.99,00:17:12.00 and prevent them getting[br]too numerous 00:17:12.00,00:17:15.99 So, in effect, the Sea Otters[br]are the guardians of the forest 00:17:21.01,00:17:25.01 Garibaldi fish do not,[br]in fact, damage the kelp 00:17:25.01,00:17:28.01 If anything, they help it[br]by picking off tiny animals 00:17:28.01,00:17:32.01 that in places encrust the leaves 00:17:37.02,00:17:41.03 They graze on bryozoans,[br]tiny colonial animals, 00:17:41.03,00:17:45.02 which build their colonies like[br]a patchwork of white skins on the leaves 00:18:00.05,00:18:03.05 When night falls there are fewer[br]predatory fish around 00:18:03.05,00:18:07.04 and the bryozoans emerge from[br]their white shelters 00:18:13.06,00:18:17.06 Now, just like coral polyps[br]they start filtering out 00:18:17.06,00:18:21.06 the plankton under cover of darkness 00:18:24.07,00:18:28.06 They are not the only animals[br]to venture out at this time 00:18:34.08,00:18:38.07 This is an amphipod, just two[br]centimetres long and it does eat kelp 00:18:45.09,00:18:49.08 In turn, it is excellent food[br]for many predators 00:18:57.10,00:19:01.11 To protect itself it produces silk,[br]just like a spider, 00:19:01.11,00:19:05.10 and uses it to sew together two sides[br]of a kelp frond and so form a shelter 00:19:15.12,00:19:19.11 This one is in particular need of[br]a secure home. She's a mother 00:19:24.13,00:19:28.13 There are over fifty youngsters[br]clustered on her abdomen, 00:19:28.13,00:19:32.13 so her home is becoming[br]somewhat cramped 00:19:34.14,00:19:38.14 They will soon be old enough to leave[br]and now whenever she can, 00:19:38.14,00:19:42.14 she kicks them out to get a taste[br]of the outside world 00:19:51.16,00:19:54.16 Dawn 00:19:54.16,00:19:58.15 Beds of eel grass grow in the shallows[br]between the kelp forest and the shore 00:20:01.17,00:20:04.17 A harbour seal has found[br]sanctuary here, 00:20:04.17,00:20:08.16 and is sleeping after[br]a hard night's foraging 00:20:10.18,00:20:14.17 But not for long 00:20:16.18,00:20:20.17 A male seal gives a wake up call 00:20:23.19,00:20:27.18 More seals are attracted[br]from all directions 00:20:34.20,00:20:38.20 It's June, the time when[br]young male harbour seals 00:20:38.20,00:20:42.20 start their strange mating displays 00:20:44.21,00:20:48.20 One listens attentively to the[br]grunting noises made by the other 00:20:53.22,00:20:56.22 These calls are almost certainly[br]a way of establishing 00:20:56.22,00:21:00.21 which of the two will be dominant 00:21:05.23,00:21:09.23 But if the animals are closely[br]matched in size and experience 00:21:09.23,00:21:13.23 - grunts won't settle the issue,[br]the rivals will have to come to blows 00:21:20.25,00:21:24.24 And seals can be surprisingly violent 00:21:35.26,00:21:37.26 In a month's time the breeding[br]season will start 00:21:37.26,00:21:39.26 and then fights will be in earnest 00:21:39.26,00:21:43.27 But now in mid-summer these[br]exchanges are harmless 00:21:43.27,00:21:47.26 They're just playing 00:21:51.28,00:21:53.28 Many of the creatures that[br]shelter in the kelp 00:21:53.28,00:21:56.28 have to venture out in order to feed 00:21:56.28,00:22:00.27 A bat ray, for one 00:22:03.29,00:22:07.29 Unlikely though it seems,[br]the sandy floor of the open sea is, 00:22:07.29,00:22:11.29 for the bat ray, a rich feeding ground 00:22:23.31,00:22:26.31 There is food hidden within the sand 00:22:26.31,00:22:30.30 and the bat ray has a special[br]technique for finding it 00:22:36.32,00:22:40.31 It uses jets of water to blow the sand[br]aside and expose small invertebrates 00:22:45.33,00:22:49.32 A kelp bass hangs about alongside,[br]waiting for scraps 00:23:11.36,00:23:15.35 Other hunters are also on the prowl 00:23:16.36,00:23:20.35 The fan tailed sole 00:23:29.37,00:23:33.37 There are mantid shrimps here,[br]living in tunnels 00:23:38.38,00:23:42.39 But once again, hunger compels[br]them to venture into the open 00:23:42.39,00:23:46.38 That, of course, is a gamble 00:23:48.39,00:23:51.40 They will either eat... 00:23:51.40,00:23:55.39 ...or be eaten 00:24:01.41,00:24:04.41 A sea slug, called Janolus 00:24:04.41,00:24:08.41 Its colours suggest that it's[br]poisonous and so it is, 00:24:08.41,00:24:12.41 to everything except another[br]kind of sea slug 00:24:19.42,00:24:23.42 the predatory Navanax 00:24:24.43,00:24:28.42 Navanax pulls itself along the trail of[br]slime that Janolus leaves behind it 00:24:45.45,00:24:49.44 Once caught, Janolus rolls[br]into a ball... 00:24:55.46,00:24:59.45 All Navanax gets is a few[br]yellow tentacles 00:25:03.47,00:25:07.46 And Janolus is swept to safety[br]by the current 00:25:15.48,00:25:19.47 It's now mid-summer and the sun[br]is shining at full strength 00:25:23.49,00:25:27.49 The increasing warmth is the cue[br]for an Atlantic lobster 00:25:27.49,00:25:29.49 to start on a long journey 00:25:29.49,00:25:33.49 She has spent the winter 250 metres down,[br]far beyond the reach of the storms 00:25:36.50,00:25:40.49 But it was cold down there and[br]now she needs to find warmer water, 00:25:41.51,00:25:45.50 so she's marching towards[br]the shallows 00:25:46.51,00:25:50.50 They, however, are 150 kilometres away 00:25:55.52,00:25:59.51 After a month of walking she finally[br]arrives at her favoured sand bank 00:26:03.53,00:26:05.53 But she's not the first here 00:26:05.53,00:26:08.53 Dozens of other lobsters have already[br]dug themselves homes in the sand 00:26:08.53,00:26:12.53 and they don't intent to[br]surrender them to newcomers 00:26:45.57,00:26:49.57 Size counts for everything[br]in these battles 00:26:49.57,00:26:53.57 The new arrival is in urgent need of a pit[br]and since she weighs a hefty 7 kilos, 00:26:55.58,00:26:59.57 she stands a good chance[br]of getting one 00:27:11.60,00:27:15.59 She's won 00:27:18.60,00:27:22.61 These battles continue for the[br]next two months and they're crucial, 00:27:22.61,00:27:24.61 for the females must[br]have both shelter 00:27:24.61,00:27:28.61 and warm water if they're[br]to raise their young 00:27:28.61,00:27:32.62 For the last seven months, each of[br]these females has been carrying 00:27:32.62,00:27:36.62 around about twenty thousand[br]fertilised eggs 00:27:36.62,00:27:38.62 But their task is approaching[br]its end 00:27:38.62,00:27:42.62 The warmth of the shallows is[br]speeding the eggs' development 00:27:45.63,00:27:49.62 Two more months and the eggs[br]are ready to hatch 00:28:07.65,00:28:11.65 At first, they're not[br]very good at swimming 00:28:12.66,00:28:16.65 But within a few minutes the babies[br]are able to set off in a purposeful way 00:28:20.67,00:28:23.67 At this time of year the sea[br]is full of larval animals 00:28:23.67,00:28:27.66 - this one is a 1 day old lobster 00:28:29.67,00:28:33.67 And this ... a 3 week old crab, just[br]ready to start its life on the sea floor 00:28:37.68,00:28:41.68 Its feet touch the bottom for the first time 00:28:43.69,00:28:47.68 At this stage in its life it's a[br]vegetarian, with a taste for sea lettuce 00:28:48.69,00:28:52.69 As it grows, so it will repeatedly[br]moult and expand into a bigger, thicker skin 00:28:55.70,00:28:59.69 The chances are it will be eaten,[br]but if it survives for five years 00:29:00.71,00:29:04.70 it will have become a magnificent[br]armoured giant 00:29:11.72,00:29:15.71 Now it eats meat and special adaptations[br]enable it to hunt in the dark 00:29:22.73,00:29:25.73 Its jointed feet are[br]covered in sensors, 00:29:25.73,00:29:29.72 which detect the slightest chemical[br]change in its surroundings 00:29:30.74,00:29:34.73 And as it walks through the darkness[br]its feet can, literally taste the sand 00:29:38.74,00:29:40.75 As soon as it finds suitable food, 00:29:40.75,00:29:44.75 it passes it forward to its[br]powerful crushing claws, 00:29:44.75,00:29:47.75 which make light work of[br]the soft flesh 00:29:47.75,00:29:51.75 And those claws are also[br]very useful for defence 00:29:58.76,00:30:02.76 A one and half metre long[br]common octopus glides by 00:30:06.77,00:30:10.76 The jet propelled giant is[br]both powerful and very clever 00:30:18.78,00:30:22.78 With octopus about, it's risky for[br]even a crab to be in the open 00:30:24.79,00:30:28.78 Even in the dark, the octopus's eyes[br]are sensitive to the slightest movement 00:30:38.80,00:30:42.80 Against a hunter like this,[br]the crab's claws are useless 00:30:53.82,00:30:57.81 Late summer in South East Alaska 00:31:02.83,00:31:06.82 The water is still warming and mysid[br]shrimp are swarming near the surface 00:31:13.84,00:31:15.84 It's a final feast for Pacific salmon, 00:31:15.84,00:31:19.83 returning to the coast from[br]the open Pacific 00:31:26.85,00:31:30.84 They are heading inshore to breed[br]and they arrive in huge numbers 00:31:33.86,00:31:36.86 They have to swim far up[br]the rivers to spawn, 00:31:36.86,00:31:39.86 but this river's level[br]is still too low 00:31:39.86,00:31:43.86 - they'll have to wait[br]until rain causes it to rise 00:31:45.87,00:31:48.87 So, for now they are trapped[br]in the sea, 00:31:48.87,00:31:52.87 close to the shore,[br]the worst place to be 00:31:54.88,00:31:58.87 A three metre long salmon shark,[br]a close relation of the great white 00:32:03.89,00:32:07.88 This one has sensed minute electrical[br]signals from the salmon nearby 00:32:10.90,00:32:14.90 Shark can maintain their blood[br]temperature at a higher level 00:32:14.90,00:32:17.90 than the surrounding sea water 00:32:17.90,00:32:21.90 And that means they have[br]the energy to be quick 00:32:26.91,00:32:30.90 Quicker even than salmon 00:32:48.93,00:32:52.93 Early autumn in Vancouver Island[br]in Canada, 600 miles to the south 00:32:54.94,00:32:58.94 The ocean temperature[br]is slowly dropping 00:32:58.94,00:33:00.95 Forty metres below the surface, 00:33:00.95,00:33:04.94 this year's baby herring are feeding[br]on the last of the summer's plankton 00:33:07.95,00:33:11.95 Their movements attract attention[br]from the skies above 00:33:19.96,00:33:23.96 Gulls can't dive, so for now[br]the fish are still safe 00:33:27.97,00:33:31.97 But there are birds which can dive 00:33:32.98,00:33:36.97 Auklets and murres swim effortlessly[br]down beneath the school 00:33:39.98,00:33:43.98 The panic herring[br]a force towards the surface 00:33:52.00,00:33:55.99 They gather into a giant defensive[br]ball of swirling fish 00:33:58.00,00:34:02.00 The commotion attracts[br]Yellowtail rockfish 00:34:04.01,00:34:08.00 They too are hunters 00:34:15.02,00:34:19.01 The marauding fish scatter[br]the herring 00:34:28.03,00:34:32.03 Repeated attacks split the ball[br]into numerous smaller groups 00:34:39.04,00:34:42.05 Now it's easier for the divers to keep 00:34:42.05,00:34:44.05 the confused fish penned[br]at the surface 00:34:44.05,00:34:48.04 and there even the gulls[br]can get at them 00:35:04.07,00:35:08.06 Attacked from all sides, the little[br]fish have virtually no chance 00:35:11.08,00:35:15.07 More and more divers are[br]attracted to the scene 00:35:19.08,00:35:22.09 They harry the shrinking numbers[br]of herring right down 00:35:22.09,00:35:26.08 to the very last individual 00:35:41.11,00:35:45.10 Far bigger predators cruise here, too 00:35:46.11,00:35:50.10 Pacific white-sided dolphin 00:35:51.12,00:35:55.12 But the dolphin are mainly[br]nocturnal hunters 00:35:55.12,00:35:59.12 - during the day they concentrate[br]on socialising 00:35:59.12,00:36:03.12 They display by releasing streams[br]of bubbles and they play games... 00:36:08.13,00:36:12.13 ...games like pass the seaweed,[br]for example 00:36:44.17,00:36:48.16 Exactly eight months ago in the[br]winter off the west coast of Scotland 00:36:49.17,00:36:53.17 an egg was laid - and securely[br]fixed to a strand of kelp 00:36:55.18,00:36:59.17 Inside, a tiny embryo started[br]to develop 00:37:07.19,00:37:11.18 Protected by the tough egg case,[br]it endured the worst of the winter storms 00:37:22.21,00:37:26.20 By summer it was half grown 00:37:36.22,00:37:40.21 Now at last, in the late autumn[br]- it's nearly ready to hatch 00:37:50.23,00:37:53.24 A fully formed miniature[br]shark swims free 00:37:53.24,00:37:57.24 This year's plankton will soon die[br]but the young dogfish 00:37:57.24,00:38:01.23 is so well developed that it can't hunt[br]immediately for larger prey 00:38:05.25,00:38:09.25 The days are getting shorter now 00:38:09.25,00:38:13.26 In British Columbia the[br]water begins to chill 00:38:13.26,00:38:17.25 This bizarre looking creature[br]is searching through the kelp for food 00:38:19.26,00:38:23.26 This is Melibe - the hooded sea slug 00:38:27.27,00:38:31.26 It catches plankton with[br]its net-like head 00:38:40.28,00:38:44.29 As winter approaches[br]plankton is becoming scarce, 00:38:44.29,00:38:48.28 but Melibe is an assiduous searcher 00:38:50.29,00:38:54.29 It can swim 00:38:57.30,00:39:01.31 It flaps away to look for[br]a better feeding spot 00:39:01.31,00:39:04.31 But its search is becoming[br]increasingly difficult 00:39:04.31,00:39:08.30 Within the next two weeks most[br]of the plankton will have disappeared 00:39:19.32,00:39:21.33 As the sunlight becomes[br]ever more feeble 00:39:21.33,00:39:25.32 - the kelp starts to die,[br]gradually rotting away to nothing 00:39:59.36,00:40:03.36 Soon it will be winter 00:40:04.37,00:40:08.36 But 9,000 miles to the south the sun[br]is rising on a new spring day 00:40:13.38,00:40:16.38 The southern hemisphere too[br]has Temperate regions 00:40:16.38,00:40:20.37 - and now the plankton is[br]beginning to bloom around Tasmania 00:40:22.39,00:40:25.39 Just as in the north,[br]the Southern Seasonal Seas 00:40:25.39,00:40:29.38 also have areas of[br]rich green water... 00:40:30.39,00:40:34.39 ...with their own kelp forests 00:40:35.40,00:40:39.39 ...and their own swarms of plankton 00:40:46.41,00:40:50.40 Some of the inhabitants of these seas[br]live only in the southern hemisphere 00:40:51.42,00:40:55.41 This is one of them - the handfish[br]- that strolls around on modified fins 00:41:03.43,00:41:07.42 But when needs must[br]- it can resort to tail power 00:41:12.44,00:41:16.44 Every summer visitors come[br]to the shallows around Tasmania 00:41:16.44,00:41:20.43 These are Australian squid[br]- about half a metre long 00:41:23.45,00:41:27.44 They are here to breed 00:41:31.46,00:41:34.46 The larger males compete for[br]the attentions of a female 00:41:34.46,00:41:38.46 displaying towards her and to one[br]another by putting on a ballet, 00:41:38.46,00:41:42.46 during which they continually change[br]the colour of their costumes 00:42:12.50,00:42:16.49 Eventually they form pairs 00:42:21.51,00:42:25.50 A male passes a packet of sperm[br]across to the female 00:42:30.51,00:42:34.52 After the eggs have been fertilised,[br]they are deposited in tough, 00:42:34.52,00:42:38.51 rubbery egg cases that other[br]creatures find poisonous 00:42:41.53,00:42:45.52 Within three weeks the babies[br]are ready to hatch out 00:42:51.54,00:42:54.54 They are already able[br]to change colour 00:42:54.54,00:42:58.53 - but they're not quite[br]so good at swimming 00:43:15.56,00:43:19.55 There is another animal here that[br]is a rather more devoted parent 00:43:20.56,00:43:23.57 This is a male leafy sea dragon, 00:43:23.57,00:43:27.56 an exquisitely decorated[br]relative of the sea horse 00:43:29.57,00:43:33.58 He is carrying his partner's[br]eggs around with him 00:43:33.58,00:43:37.57 They would be a highly nutritious snack[br]for any predator that found them 00:43:39.58,00:43:42.59 But that's not easy because[br]the eggs are attached 00:43:42.59,00:43:45.59 to their father's perfectly[br]camouflaged body 00:43:45.59,00:43:49.58 They could scarcely be[br]in a safer place 00:44:14.62,00:44:18.61 By November, 10,000 miles to the north,[br]winter has arrived 00:44:20.62,00:44:24.62 Norway now gets less than 5 hours[br]of daylight in every twenty four 00:44:26.63,00:44:30.63 The temperature is[br]falling rapidly 00:44:30.63,00:44:34.63 But despite the cold,[br]the sea is far from deserted 00:44:35.64,00:44:38.64 Every winter, 500 million[br]tonnes of adult 00:44:38.64,00:44:42.64 herring seek shelter in[br]these deep waters 00:44:45.65,00:44:48.65 They will stay here for four months,[br]living entirely on the fat 00:44:48.65,00:44:52.65 they accumulated during the[br]summer feasts of plankton 00:44:54.66,00:44:57.66 But they are not alone... 00:44:57.66,00:45:01.67 Orca's his small pod is part[br]of a population 00:45:01.67,00:45:03.67 of some five hundred[br]killer whales 00:45:03.67,00:45:07.66 that specialise in hunting[br]North Atlantic herring 00:45:21.69,00:45:24.69 Using their echo-location[br]they have detected a shoal 00:45:24.69,00:45:28.69 of herring 50 metres below them 00:45:28.69,00:45:31.70 With enough air for a 10 minute dive... 00:45:31.70,00:45:35.69 they swim deep below the herring[br]and drive the fish upwards 00:45:42.71,00:45:44.71 Bubbles stream from the rising fish 00:45:44.71,00:45:48.70 as gas in their swim bladders[br]expands and escapes 00:45:54.72,00:45:58.71 Even an orca finds it difficult[br]to catch a healthy herring 00:46:00.72,00:46:04.72 But they have a devastating[br]weapon all their own 00:46:11.74,00:46:15.73 They use their tail to club[br]the fish with waves of water pressure 00:46:23.75,00:46:27.74 Then it's simply a matter of collecting[br]the stunned casualties 00:46:42.77,00:46:46.76 The herrings have no chance and both orca[br]and gulls will eat as much as they can 00:46:48.77,00:46:52.77 - every day for the next four months 00:46:56.78,00:47:00.77 But there are so many fish wintering here,[br]over 5 billion individuals, 00:47:01.79,00:47:05.78 that the losses are[br]almost unnoticeable 00:47:13.80,00:47:15.80 Violent as this Winter weather may be 00:47:15.80,00:47:19.79 - it's essential for the renewal of[br]the riches of the Seasonal Seas 00:47:21.81,00:47:25.80 Out in the open oceans, the surging[br]waters stir up nutrients from the depths 00:47:32.82,00:47:36.82 By the end of winter the Seasonal Seas[br]will be full of minerals once more, 00:47:36.82,00:47:40.81 ready for the return of the sun[br]and the next great plankton bloom
B-Happy
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