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BBC - The Blue Planet (8 of 8) - Coasts

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[INFORMATION] [AUTHOR] [SOURCE] [PRG] [FILEPATH] [DELAY] [CD TRACK] [COMMENT] [END INFORMATION] [SUBTITLE] [COLF]&HFFFFFF,[STYLE]no,[SIZE]18,[FONT]Arial 00:00:42.30,00:00:46.29 The coast - the frontier[br]between land and sea 00:00:49.30,00:00:53.31 This is the most dynamic[br]of all the ocean habitats 00:00:53.31,00:00:56.31 The challenge here is[br]to survive change 00:00:56.31,00:01:00.30 Extreme change 00:01:26.34,00:01:30.34 Cape Douglas, on the most[br]westerly of the Galapagos islands, 00:01:30.34,00:01:34.35 totally unprotected from the massive[br]rollers of the Pacific Ocean 00:01:34.35,00:01:38.34 and one of the roughest[br]coastlines in the world 00:02:13.39,00:02:17.38 The marine iguanas of the Galapagos[br]are the world's only sea-going lizards 00:02:26.40,00:02:30.39 Seaweed is all they eat,[br]but doing so is a dangerous business 00:02:33.41,00:02:36.41 The local crabs have[br]become specially flattened, 00:02:36.41,00:02:39.41 minimising the effect[br]of the pounding waves 00:02:39.41,00:02:43.41 And the iguanas have huge[br]claws to grip the rocks 00:02:44.42,00:02:47.42 This seaweed really is fast food 00:02:47.42,00:02:50.42 There are only a few seconds[br]in which to grab a few mouthfuls 00:02:50.42,00:02:54.42 before the next breaker[br]comes pounding in 00:03:01.44,00:03:04.44 Female iguanas feed[br]only on the exposed rocks, 00:03:04.44,00:03:08.43 but the males which are larger swim and[br]dive beneath the surface to reach the weed 00:03:13.45,00:03:15.45 They go as deep as ten metres, 00:03:15.45,00:03:19.44 for there beyond the destructive reach[br]of the waves, they find the best fronds 00:03:21.46,00:03:24.46 Being cold-blooded they[br]have to return to land 00:03:24.46,00:03:28.45 after about ten minutes or[br]so to warm up again in the sun 00:03:44.48,00:03:48.48 Finding food is not the only[br]challenge for coastal residents 00:03:48.48,00:03:52.49 These rocky shores are hardly[br]a safe place to lay their eggs 00:03:52.49,00:03:55.49 and each year the marine iguanas[br]have to journey inland 00:03:55.49,00:03:59.48 to find a more suitable one 00:04:01.50,00:04:05.50 The females lay their eggs in burrows[br]and leave them there to hatch, 00:04:05.50,00:04:09.49 and to do that they[br]need nice soft sand 00:04:19.51,00:04:23.52 Down at the water edge, it was easy[br]to escape danger in rocky crevices, 00:04:23.52,00:04:27.51 but up here the females[br]are dangerously exposed 00:04:29.52,00:04:33.52 A Galapagos hawk 00:05:01.56,00:05:05.55 The lizards don't give up[br]without a struggle 00:05:24.58,00:05:28.57 These hawks stay on the coast all year[br]But they are exceptional 00:05:29.58,00:05:33.59 The majority of the birds[br]that frequent this frontier 00:05:33.59,00:05:37.59 spend most of their time elsewhere[br]- in or above the open ocean 00:05:37.59,00:05:41.58 However all seabirds have to come[br]to land in order to lay their eggs 00:05:42.60,00:05:46.60 And after spending many lonely[br]months searching the ocean for food, 00:05:46.60,00:05:50.59 they have to re-establish[br]their social relationships 00:05:52.61,00:05:56.60 Frigate birds display and[br]exchange nesting material 00:06:00.61,00:06:04.61 Waved albatross dance 00:06:14.63,00:06:18.62 The need to lay their egg on firm ground[br]ties the albatross to the coast 00:06:20.63,00:06:22.64 but parental responsibilities[br]are shared 00:06:22.64,00:06:26.63 While one looks after the egg,[br]...the other can go off to feed 00:06:54.67,00:06:58.67 The need to breed brings[br]many different animals 00:06:58.67,00:07:01.68 to the coast each year[br]for a few weeks 00:07:01.68,00:07:05.68 Male sea turtles spend all[br]their lives at sea, but the females, 00:07:05.68,00:07:09.67 like birds, must come to[br]land to lay their eggs 00:07:15.69,00:07:19.68 To do that green turtles that live[br]and feed off the coast of Brazil 00:07:20.69,00:07:24.69 swim fifteen hundred miles to the[br]tiny island of Ascension 00:07:25.70,00:07:29.69 that lies bang in the middle[br]of the Atlantic Ocean 00:07:39.71,00:07:43.72 Exactly how they manage to[br]navigate with such accuracy 00:07:43.72,00:07:47.71 and find this tiny lump of rock,[br]just seven miles wide is a mystery 00:07:51.73,00:07:55.72 But each year up to five thousand[br]turtles manage to do so and then, 00:07:56.73,00:07:59.73 close to the coast of Ascension,[br]they mate 00:07:59.73,00:08:03.73 Travelling to and from Ascension and[br]nesting here can take up to six months 00:08:05.74,00:08:09.73 and throughout that entire time,[br]none of them feed at all 00:08:12.75,00:08:15.75 After mating a female has to[br]leave her natural element 00:08:15.75,00:08:19.75 and haul herself up onto land 00:08:19.75,00:08:22.76 She does so at night,[br]laying about three or four times 00:08:22.76,00:08:25.76 at around fifteen day intervals 00:08:25.76,00:08:29.76 After that she then swims all the way[br]back to the seas off Brazil 00:08:29.76,00:08:33.77 She returns to this very same[br]island throughout her life 00:08:33.77,00:08:37.76 Remarkably, all the world's sea turtles[br]return year after year 00:08:38.77,00:08:42.77 to just a few traditional[br]breeding sites 00:08:43.78,00:08:47.77 Crab Island, in Australia,[br]is one of them 00:08:48.78,00:08:51.79 This tiny two-mile long crescent of sand, 00:08:51.79,00:08:54.79 lying a few miles off[br]Queensland's northerly tip, 00:08:54.79,00:08:58.79 provides nesting sites[br]for half the entire population 00:08:58.79,00:09:02.80 of one of the world's[br]rarest sea turtles 00:09:02.80,00:09:05.80 Flat-backed turtles are large,[br]over a metre long 00:09:05.80,00:09:07.80 - but they have to be careful 00:09:07.80,00:09:10.80 There are other giant[br]reptiles here too 00:09:10.80,00:09:14.80 Salt-water crocodiles 00:09:17.81,00:09:19.81 Every night throughout the year 00:09:19.81,00:09:23.81 there are flat-backs burying their eggs[br]all along this lonely stretch of sand 00:09:37.83,00:09:41.82 Nine weeks later and things[br]are about to happen 00:09:48.84,00:09:52.84 These eyes shining in the darkness[br]belong to night herons 00:09:58.85,00:10:02.85 As if from nowhere, hundreds of birds[br]suddenly appear on the sand dunes 00:10:03.86,00:10:07.86 Pelicans wait patiently 00:10:07.86,00:10:11.85 Jabiru storks pace up and down 00:10:14.87,00:10:18.86 Before long they see what[br]they've been waiting for. 00:10:41.90,00:10:44.90 Because these turtles lay[br]their eggs throughout the year, 00:10:44.90,00:10:48.89 the hatchlings emerge night after night[br]in a steady trickle of beak sized meals 00:11:10.92,00:11:14.93 Pelican's broad beaks allow[br]them to dig out the hatchlings 00:11:14.93,00:11:18.92 before the herons can spear[br]them on the surface 00:11:22.94,00:11:24.94 The surf may be hundreds of metres away 00:11:24.94,00:11:28.93 and at least a third of the tiny turtles[br]do not survive the journey 00:11:30.94,00:11:34.94 And its not just the birds[br]that take them 00:11:37.95,00:11:41.96 Crocodiles, sharks and hungry fish[br]are all waiting in the shallows 00:11:41.96,00:11:45.95 In fact only one in every hundred[br]hatchlings will survive to adulthood 00:11:55.97,00:11:59.96 Another beach, another continent,[br]and a very special night 00:12:00.97,00:12:04.97 Here in Costa Rica there is a turtle which[br]has found a way of reducing these dangers 00:12:06.98,00:12:09.98 When Ridley's turtles arrive[br]to lay their eggs 00:12:09.98,00:12:13.98 they don't come in tens or hundreds...[br]but in thousands 00:12:15.99,00:12:19.98 Over the next six days around four hundred[br]thousand females will visit this beach 00:12:23.00,00:12:26.99 At the peak time, five thousand[br]are coming and going each hour 00:12:28.00,00:12:32.01 The beach gets so crowded that[br]they have to clamber over one another 00:12:32.01,00:12:36.00 to find a bare patch of sand[br]where they can dig a nest hole 00:12:39.01,00:12:42.02 Forty million eggs are laid[br]in these few days 00:12:42.02,00:12:45.02 So these turtles ensure[br]that six weeks later 00:12:45.02,00:12:49.01 when their hatchlings emerge[br]it's not just a trickle 00:12:50.02,00:12:54.02 It's a flood 00:13:02.04,00:13:06.03 On some nights, over two million[br]hatchlings race down to the sea together 00:13:17.05,00:13:19.05 With so many appearing simultaneously, 00:13:19.05,00:13:23.05 the predators are overwhelmed and most[br]of the young turtles reach the sea safely 00:13:38.07,00:13:42.08 Leaving the sea and emerging onto[br]land is hard enough for turtles 00:13:42.08,00:13:46.07 It'd even harder for fish 00:13:52.09,00:13:56.09 Each year for hundreds of miles[br]along the Newfoundland coast, 00:13:56.09,00:14:00.08 capelin throw themselves[br]onto the beaches 00:14:26.12,00:14:30.11 At least a million tonnes of[br]fish floundering out of the water 00:14:31.12,00:14:35.12 - a real gift for scavenging[br]eagles and gulls 00:14:54.15,00:14:57.15 Odd though it may seem for a fish,[br]these capelin, 00:14:57.15,00:15:01.14 like the turtles, have also[br]come out of the sea to breed 00:15:13.17,00:15:16.17 The males are trying to[br]fertilise the eggs 00:15:16.17,00:15:20.17 that the females are[br]depositing in the sand 00:15:20.17,00:15:21.17 Like the Ridley's turtles, 00:15:21.17,00:15:25.17 they have synchronised their mass[br]laying with the tide 00:15:26.18,00:15:29.18 In a few days it will be over 00:15:29.18,00:15:33.18 Most of the capelin die but only after[br]they've left their eggs in the sand 00:15:37.19,00:15:39.19 Other capelin populations[br]lay their eggs 00:15:39.19,00:15:43.19 in the ocean so why do the[br]Newfoundland fish spawn on land 00:15:44.20,00:15:47.20 It seems that eggs deposited in[br]the beach may be safer 00:15:47.20,00:15:51.19 from predators and develop faster[br]than in colder waters out to sea 00:15:55.21,00:15:58.21 But wherever they do so,[br]the huge spawning shoals 00:15:58.21,00:16:02.20 provide the concentration of food that[br]seabirds need when they assemble to breed 00:16:07.22,00:16:11.22 Ninety five percent of the[br]world's seabirds nest together, 00:16:11.22,00:16:15.22 mostly in large spectacular colonies 00:16:17.23,00:16:21.22 This is Funk Island forty miles[br]off the coast of Newfoundland 00:16:22.24,00:16:26.23 - an isolated rock crammed[br]with breeding sea-birds 00:16:34.25,00:16:38.24 This was the last breeding ground for the[br]flightless Great Auk, sadly now extinct 00:16:40.25,00:16:44.26 Today it's still the world's[br]largest Guillemot colony 00:16:44.26,00:16:48.25 Over a million of them share the[br]crowded island with 250,000 gannets 00:16:52.27,00:16:54.27 It's not the lack of suitable sites 00:16:54.27,00:16:58.27 that causes the seabirds[br]to breed in such densities 00:16:58.27,00:17:01.27 Here in the North Atlantic,[br]there's a wide choice of 00:17:01.27,00:17:04.28 empty coastline that[br]the birds could use 00:17:04.28,00:17:07.28 The key factor limiting the size[br]and location of seabird colonies 00:17:07.28,00:17:11.27 seems to be the availability of food[br]in the surrounding ocean 00:17:17.29,00:17:21.28 There are lots of hungry mouths to feed[br]and a constant demand for fish 00:17:28.30,00:17:31.30 Throughout the long summer days[br]at colonies like funk, 00:17:31.30,00:17:35.30 There's a continual stream of birds,[br]heading out to the ocean to find food 00:17:36.31,00:17:40.30 and returning with full crops[br]to feed their young 00:17:48.32,00:17:51.32 Gannets will travel up[br]to two hundred miles 00:17:51.32,00:17:54.33 from the colony on[br]a single foraging trip 00:17:54.33,00:17:57.33 They are not fussy eaters[br]and will take everything 00:17:57.33,00:18:01.32 - from tiny sand eels to herring 00:18:13.35,00:18:15.35 Puffins, on the other hand,[br]are very particular about 00:18:15.35,00:18:19.35 what they eat and because they can[br]only fly short distances, 00:18:19.35,00:18:23.35 they only nest where there's a good[br]supply of suitable food close by 00:18:30.36,00:18:34.36 One such place is the sea of Okhotsk[br]in far eastern Russia 00:18:37.37,00:18:41.36 This is the island of Talan 00:18:43.38,00:18:47.38 Throughout the long arctic winter,[br]it is encircled by ice 00:18:47.38,00:18:50.38 But as spring approaches,[br]that begins to break up 00:18:50.38,00:18:53.39 and seabirds that have spent[br]the winter feeding out 00:18:53.39,00:18:57.38 on the open ocean far to[br]the south begin to return 00:19:02.40,00:19:06.39 Its isolated position and steep cliffs[br]make Talan a perfect nesting site 00:19:10.40,00:19:12.41 The Tufted Puffins arrive first 00:19:12.41,00:19:16.40 These are the Pacific cousins of[br]our less spectacular Atlantic species 00:19:21.41,00:19:25.42 Horned puffins soon follow 00:19:25.42,00:19:29.42 In all, fourteen different species[br]return to Talan each spring 00:19:29.42,00:19:33.43 and in just a few weeks[br]the once silent cliffs 00:19:33.43,00:19:37.42 come alive to the calls of[br]4 million breeding seabirds 00:19:41.43,00:19:45.43 This is a multi-storey avian city 00:19:53.45,00:19:57.44 Assembling in these dense colonies after[br]having spent a largely solitary life 00:19:58.45,00:20:01.45 at sea provides the birds with[br]the social stimulation 00:20:01.45,00:20:05.45 that is the key to co-ordinating[br]their breeding 00:20:07.46,00:20:10.46 By nesting and laying together[br]they ensure that 00:20:10.46,00:20:14.47 most of their chicks will leave[br]the nest at exactly the same time 00:20:14.47,00:20:18.46 Just like the turtles this is the way[br]they spread the impact of predators 00:20:22.48,00:20:26.48 The world's largest eagle[br]- Steller's sea eagle 00:20:26.48,00:20:30.47 A third as big again as a golden 00:20:32.49,00:20:36.48 Throughout the summer, the eagles[br]hunt in Talan's crowded colonies 00:20:48.50,00:20:52.51 Riding on the updrafts,[br]they patrol the top of the cliffs, 00:20:52.51,00:20:56.50 Iooking out for any Kittiwake[br]that ventures too far from the rock face 00:21:02.52,00:21:06.51 Suddenly the huge eagle stoops[br]with the aerial agility of a falcon 00:21:15.53,00:21:19.52 Co-ordinated panic among the kittiwakes[br]confuses their attacker 00:21:34.55,00:21:38.54 But the eagle doesn't give up 00:21:48.56,00:21:52.55 And it has got one 00:22:04.58,00:22:08.57 Another kind of seabird on Talan[br]has a particularly effective way 00:22:09.58,00:22:11.58 of defending itself against predators 00:22:11.58,00:22:15.58 - but it doesn't appear until[br]an hour before sunset 00:22:19.59,00:22:23.59 As if from nowhere, dense swarms of[br]seabirds suddenly arrive off-shore 00:22:29.60,00:22:33.60 They're spent the day feeding far away,[br]where the sea ice has already broken up 00:22:35.61,00:22:39.61 They are crested auklets,[br]hardly bigger than starlings 00:22:39.61,00:22:43.61 A million of them return to Talan each[br]year to nest in its fields of boulders 00:22:51.62,00:22:54.63 For an hour before sunset,[br]the hillsides comes alive 00:22:54.63,00:22:58.63 with huge flocks of circling auklets[br]They're nervous 00:22:58.63,00:23:02.62 No one wants to be the first to land 00:23:08.64,00:23:11.64 Auklets are very social when[br]they are back together at the coast 00:23:11.64,00:23:14.65 One of the advantages of nesting[br]in such densities 00:23:14.65,00:23:18.65 may be the chance to share[br]information on good feeding sites 00:23:18.65,00:23:22.64 It also gives them the[br]opportunity to court 00:23:26.66,00:23:30.65 But perhaps most importantly,[br]there is safety in numbers 00:23:36.67,00:23:40.66 Ravens and peregrines circle above[br]the scree slope every evening 00:23:56.69,00:24:00.68 By taking off together,[br]the auklets hope to confuse the predators 00:24:31.72,00:24:35.72 Eventually their persistence[br]pays off 00:24:44.74,00:24:47.74 The birds that face the[br]greatest challenge in coming 00:24:47.74,00:24:51.73 to the coast to nest are[br]surely the penguins 00:25:03.76,00:25:07.75 Unable to fly, they have no alternative[br]but to brave the immense waves 00:25:20.77,00:25:22.78 Most penguins live in the southern ocean 00:25:22.78,00:25:26.77 and they have to accept being[br]hurled about by the surf 00:25:44.80,00:25:48.79 Whatever the weather, the penguin parents[br]have to come back to feed their chicks 00:25:59.81,00:26:01.81 A southern sea lion bull 00:26:01.81,00:26:05.81 - he knows the penguins always use[br]the same traditional landing beach 00:26:10.82,00:26:12.83 Having braved the thundering surf, 00:26:12.83,00:26:16.82 the penguins have to make a mad dash[br]across open rock to get to their nests 00:26:38.85,00:26:42.86 Despite his massive size and[br]a body adapted for swimming, 00:26:42.86,00:26:46.85 the bull chases the penguins for forty[br]or fifty metres across the rocks 00:27:39.91,00:27:43.91 Having caught his penguin, the sea lion[br]carries it out into deeper water where, 00:27:44.92,00:27:48.91 by violently thrashing the little body,[br]he skins his meal 00:27:58.93,00:28:02.92 The seas around the Falklands are some[br]of the roughest in the world 00:28:04.94,00:28:08.93 In spite of that, the southern ocean[br]is home to millions of tiny seabirds 00:28:09.94,00:28:12.95 hardly bigger than swallows-petrels 00:28:12.95,00:28:15.95 Being so small they are very[br]vulnerable to the bad weather 00:28:15.95,00:28:18.95 A severe storm can blow[br]them miles off course 00:28:18.95,00:28:22.96 and keep them away from[br]their nests for days 00:28:22.96,00:28:26.95 But these birds have developed a very[br]effective solution to that problem 00:28:29.96,00:28:32.97 They lay a rather special egg 00:28:32.97,00:28:36.96 Most bird's eggs, left exposed for even[br]a few hours, will chill and never hatch 00:28:38.97,00:28:40.97 But these eggs are different 00:28:40.97,00:28:43.98 They can be left for several days[br]without incubation and remain undamaged... 00:28:43.98,00:28:47.97 ...while the parents struggle[br]home through the storm 00:28:51.98,00:28:55.98 Prions have also come up with[br]a good way to avoid most predators 00:28:56.99,00:29:00.98 They never come back to the[br]coast until after dark 00:29:03.00,00:29:06.00 These are Thin-billed Prions 00:29:06.00,00:29:10.00 Their burrows honeycomb this[br]hillside in the Falklands 00:29:10.00,00:29:12.00 It'd deserted throughout[br]the daylight hours... 00:29:12.00,00:29:14.01 ...but as soon as it's dark 00:29:14.01,00:29:17.01 and difficult for airborne[br]predators to hunt... 00:29:17.01,00:29:21.00 ...the prions return 00:29:26.02,00:29:30.01 As soon as they land, they call 00:29:34.03,00:29:35.03 The problem, of course... 00:29:35.03,00:29:39.02 ...is finding your burrow[br]among all the others 00:29:40.03,00:29:44.04 He's listening out for[br]his mate's call... 00:29:44.04,00:29:48.03 ...and down he goes. 00:29:53.05,00:29:55.05 The Alaskan coast 00:29:55.05,00:29:59.04 It's spring and the last of[br]the winter storms is subsiding 00:30:02.05,00:30:06.06 The plankton in this sea is in[br]bloom again and just off shore, 00:30:06.06,00:30:10.05 humpback whales have[br]returned to feed 00:30:15.07,00:30:19.06 For these huge animals, there is a real[br]risk in coming into such shallow water 00:30:20.07,00:30:24.07 and each year a good number[br]of them pay the price 00:30:29.08,00:30:32.08 It is an ignominious ending[br]for an ageing whale 00:30:32.08,00:30:36.08 But so much flesh will not go to waste 00:30:37.09,00:30:41.08 A black bear emerges[br]cautiously from the woods 00:30:50.10,00:30:54.10 Visitors to the coast that don't come to[br]breed, have usually come to scavenge 00:30:56.11,00:30:59.11 A whole range of different animals[br]have learnt to exploit 00:30:59.11,00:31:01.11 the enormous quantity of food... 00:31:01.11,00:31:05.11 .....that washes up everyday on[br]coastlines around the world 00:31:06.12,00:31:10.12 But like so much at the coast[br]the quantity of flotsam 00:31:10.12,00:31:12.12 and jetsam is unpredictable 00:31:12.12,00:31:16.12 Nobody can rely on it alone 00:31:19.13,00:31:23.12 This carcass even attracted[br]a shy pack of wolves only too happy 00:31:24.14,00:31:25.14 to anoint themselves with the... 00:31:25.14,00:31:29.13 ...scent of rotting whale 00:31:32.14,00:31:34.15 It was months before the[br]scavengers finally 00:31:34.15,00:31:37.15 cleaned up all the meat[br]on this huge and... 00:31:37.15,00:31:41.14 ...unpredictable gift from the sea 00:31:46.16,00:31:50.15 Whales give birth to their young at sea[br]and so can spend their entire lives there 00:31:52.16,00:31:56.17 Other marine mammals - one of that are[br]in fact distant cousins of bears 00:31:56.17,00:32:00.16 - have to return... each year to[br]their ancestral home on land 00:32:06.18,00:32:10.17 The high arctic[br]Here lives one of them...the walrus 00:32:20.19,00:32:23.20 Walruses spend nearly[br]all their lives at sea, 00:32:23.20,00:32:25.20 but each year for just a few weeks... 00:32:25.20,00:32:29.19 ...they have to return to the coast. 00:32:30.20,00:32:33.21 They seek out isolated beaches[br]like this one on Round Island in the... 00:32:33.21,00:32:36.21 ...far northern Pacific 00:32:36.21,00:32:40.21 Suitable sites like this,[br]free from bears, are so scarce... 00:32:40.21,00:32:43.22 ...that at times as many as[br]fourteen thousand animals 00:32:43.22,00:32:45.22 will cram themselves on to this... 00:32:45.22,00:32:49.21 ...one beach 00:32:55.23,00:32:58.23 When they first emerge from[br]the sea the walrus are white 00:32:58.23,00:33:02.23 That's because being warm-blooded[br]animals living in very cold ocean, 00:33:02.23,00:33:05.24 they conserve heat by... 00:33:05.24,00:33:09.24 ...keeping their blood concentrated[br]in the core of their bodies 00:33:09.24,00:33:12.24 On land it's warm enough for them[br]to allow their... 00:33:12.24,00:33:16.24 ...outer blood vessels to dilate and[br]that turns their skin from white to pink 00:33:26.26,00:33:29.26 Now they can moult the outer[br]layers of their skin, 00:33:29.26,00:33:33.25 rubbing themselves up[br]against the rocks 00:33:35.27,00:33:38.27 But more than anything[br]else coming to land 00:33:38.27,00:33:41.27 brings the walrus relief[br]from having to spend energy 00:33:41.27,00:33:45.27 maintaining their body temperature[br]in an icy-cold ocean 00:33:49.28,00:33:52.28 Heat conservation, in fact, may well[br]be the primary reason so many... 00:33:52.28,00:33:56.28 ...sea mammals are forced to[br]return to the land each year 00:34:02.29,00:34:06.29 The world's coldest seas[br]are in Antarctica 00:34:07.30,00:34:10.30 Each spring, half the world's[br]Southern Elephant seals 00:34:10.30,00:34:14.31 return to the island[br]of South Georgia 00:34:14.31,00:34:18.30 Elephant seals have particularly thick[br]insulation of blubber that keeps them warm 00:34:19.31,00:34:23.30 For them breeding is the only[br]reason to leave the sea 00:34:29.32,00:34:31.32 With temperatures down[br]to minus 20... 00:34:31.32,00:34:35.32 ...and hundred mile an hour winds,[br]it can't be comfortable out on the beach, 00:34:36.33,00:34:38.33 but heat dissipates more[br]rapidly through water... 00:34:38.33,00:34:42.33 ...than through air so even[br]in these conditions... 00:34:42.33,00:34:45.34 ...their young which at first[br]don't have a thick coat 00:34:45.34,00:34:49.34 of blubber will be far[br]warmer on the land 00:34:49.34,00:34:53.33 Once the males are established on the[br]beach the females soon follow 00:34:58.35,00:35:02.34 Within just ten days the empty beach[br]fills up with six thousand elephant seals 00:35:06.36,00:35:10.35 Almost immediately the females give[br]birth to pups sired the previous year 00:35:21.37,00:35:25.37 Their milk is very rich and the pups[br]grow astonishingly quickly 00:35:33.39,00:35:37.38 In just three weeks they turn form thin[br]bags of skin to fat balls of blubber 00:35:41.39,00:35:42.39 As soon as they've given birth, 00:35:42.39,00:35:45.40 the females become sexually[br]receptive again... 00:35:45.40,00:35:48.40 ...and it's now that the[br]advantages of breeding 00:35:48.40,00:35:51.40 in such dense colonies become clear 00:35:51.40,00:35:53.41 Females can make their[br]choice from many males, 00:35:53.41,00:35:57.40 while successful males can[br]have access to lots of females 00:36:04.42,00:36:08.42 But to gain that access and[br]control a harem of females, 00:36:08.42,00:36:12.41 the bull must be prepared to fight 00:36:32.44,00:36:36.44 The larger the male, the louder the roar[br]and the more likely he is to win 00:36:47.46,00:36:51.45 When males are well matched these bloody[br]battles will last twenty minutes or more 00:37:12.48,00:37:16.48 Eventually, the loser retreats into[br]a stream already pink with his own blood 00:37:29.50,00:37:33.51 These battles certainly help females[br]select the strongest bulls... 00:37:33.51,00:37:37.50 ...but they bring great[br]dangers for the pups. 00:37:46.52,00:37:48.52 Each year, in the denser[br]parts of the colony, 00:37:48.52,00:37:52.52 a fifth of the pups are[br]crushed to death 00:37:52.52,00:37:55.53 This is why it may[br]be better to mate 00:37:55.53,00:37:59.52 at the edge of the beach[br]close to the sea 00:38:03.54,00:38:06.54 Less dominant males hide[br]in the surf 00:38:06.54,00:38:09.54 They are waiting to try[br]and steal an illicit mating... 00:38:09.54,00:38:13.53 ...with females as[br]they come and go 00:38:16.55,00:38:18.55 This male knows he has been[br]spotted by the big bull 00:38:18.55,00:38:22.54 who claims all the females[br]on this part of the beach 00:39:25.62,00:39:29.61 Breeding in groups can bring advantages[br]to pups as well as to adults 00:39:36.63,00:39:40.62 Along the coast of Patagonia southern sea[br]lions breed together each year 00:39:41.63,00:39:45.64 in groups several hundred strong 00:39:45.64,00:39:49.64 For the growing pups these colonies[br]act rather like a school 00:39:49.64,00:39:52.64 The bonds and relationships[br]developed here on the beach 00:39:52.64,00:39:55.65 may be vital for the[br]rest of their lives 00:39:55.65,00:39:59.64 Sea lions are very social animals[br]and as adults and young forage together, 00:40:00.65,00:40:01.65 they probably share... 00:40:01.65,00:40:05.65 ...information about the location[br]of good feeding sites 00:40:07.66,00:40:11.65 Conditions here could hardly be better[br]for the growing youngsters 00:40:12.66,00:40:16.66 As the tide goes out it leaves behind[br]a selection of sheltered pools 00:40:18.67,00:40:22.66 Perfect places for[br]learning to swim 00:40:55.71,00:40:56.71 At high tide... 00:40:56.71,00:41:00.70 ...it is easy for the pups to take their[br]first experimental dips in the surf 00:41:35.75,00:41:39.75 A killer whale 00:41:39.75,00:41:43.74 These young pups have never seen[br]anything like it before 00:41:55.77,00:41:58.77 The Whales though are[br]very experienced 00:41:58.77,00:42:01.77 Each year this same group turns[br]up along the coast 00:42:01.77,00:42:05.77 at precisely the same time[br]as the pups are starting to swim 00:42:15.79,00:42:17.79 The whales need to surprise the pups, 00:42:17.79,00:42:21.78 so they have stopped calling[br]to one another and keep silent 00:42:30.80,00:42:34.80 Speed is everything 00:42:36.81,00:42:39.81 The whales do not take pups[br]that are out of the water, 00:42:39.81,00:42:42.81 but sometimes their momentum[br]drives them right up the beach 00:42:42.81,00:42:46.81 and then there's real danger[br]of getting stuck 00:44:19.91,00:44:23.90 The whale has to thrash in this[br]frenzied way to get off the beach 00:44:24.92,00:44:28.92 Most of the pups are taken into deep[br]water while they're still alive 00:44:28.92,00:44:32.91 And there the whales - apparently[br]- play with them 00:44:55.95,00:44:59.95 Often an adult whale is joined[br]in the game by a youngster 00:44:59.95,00:45:03.94 It may be learning how to grab a seal pup[br]before it risks a drive up the beach 00:45:13.97,00:45:16.97 Whatever the reason the seal pup[br]- still alive 00:45:16.97,00:45:20.96 - is tossed back and forth[br]for over half an hour 00:45:54.01,00:45:58.00 Even when the pup is dead, the whales'[br]sport is not completely over 00:46:29.04,00:46:33.03 We can only speculate at the real reasons[br]behind this extraordinary behaviour 00:46:47.06,00:46:51.06 But for the whales, the hunting[br]season is a short one 00:46:51.06,00:46:55.07 Before long the pups learn to[br]stay well clear of the water 00:46:55.07,00:46:58.07 and the whales become less[br]and less successful 00:46:58.07,00:47:02.07 After just two weeks, they move on 00:47:02.07,00:47:06.07 The killing season is over 00:47:15.09,00:47:17.09 That's how it often happens[br]along the coast 00:47:17.09,00:47:20.09 Things are always changing 00:47:20.09,00:47:23.09 They're never the same[br]for long in this, 00:47:23.09,00:47:27.09 the most dynamic of all[br]the ocean's habitats
B-Happy
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