Muhammad - Legacy Of A Prophet CD2 2002
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their religion than many other Muslim countries.
In many ways this whole immigration process from Mecca to Medina very much
parallels what's happened in my own city here in Dearborn, in our own backyard.
And I see it play out in the hospital where I work.
Najah Bazzy is a nurse at Dearborn's Oakwood Hospital.
She conducts training sessions to help bridge
the gap of understanding between the hospital staff
and their Muslim patients, many of whom are immigrants.
I know you're all nurses, and I know
that you're in this profession, just as I am, to serve, to do a good job.
But it's real easy for us to get caught up in our own baggage.
We're all human and we all have a certain set of preconceived notions
just as you walk through the door and you saw me
for the first time, just as you might have seen Alijah.
In the sensitivity training inevitably, they know very little about the faith of Islam.
They think that the faith of Islam is a very maybe terroristic, militant, barbaric
spread by the sword faith.
And so when they have a Muslim up there talking about
patient rights, dignity, issues around health
and illness, all of a sudden you see all of these stereotypes that people
have as part of, you know, the baggage as we grow up, just kind of fall.
When you transcend culture, you arrive at a universal place
where our humanness is all the same. You grieve the same.
We all cry when someone we love dies.
When we deliver, those of us who deliver, we all experience labor.
Something happened in Dearborn that further established a need for this kind of work
and that was a huge immigration process as a result of the Gulf War.
As a critical care nurse, Najah Bazzy often has to counsel patients with terminal
illnesses, like this Iraqi immigrant who has just been diagnosed with uterine cancer.
I said to her what do you think you have?
And she said I have an infection in the uterus and they took it out.
Maybe she's not hearing it the first time, maybe she doesn't need to hear it.
Maybe she can't hear it.
They're just not saying the "C" word at all.
They're not using that word with her.
And they want to just maintain hope, and uh ...
- just want to treat it delicately, okay? - Okay. - Alright.
These are families immigrating from a way of life.
And mostly because they have been torn by war.
And so they get here and the helpers are here.
And it's quite obligatory to be that helper.
When Muhammad arrived in Medina, he made it clear that helping
immigrants would be one of the cornerstones of the new Islamic society.
This is his message, spread peace, feed people food, and
do some devotional practice and you will enter paradise without any trouble.
Two-thirds of that message is about other people.
The secret of Medina is it's a place where human beings are
going to attempt to live up to the ideal of the Islamic tradition.
Part of the arrangement was that the people of Medina agreed
that they would provide housing and support for the immigrants as they came in.
And very often they were even paired so that
certain people had direct responsibility for specific people from Mecca.
And that did not take place in 24 hours.
It came step by step, step by step, and within a few months, you now had two groups
the Helpers, so called, El Ansar, that is, those
Medinan Arabs who had become Muslims, and the Meccans
who had become Muslims before them.
And in this way, for the first time, he created the Islamic Ummah, that is, the Islamic people.
That bond which transcends all other bonds.
He said to these people, these are now your neighbors
these are your brothers and sisters.
He establishes that sense of humanity, that Ummah.
We are all connected to one another, we are all responsible for one another.
A couple of you guys to carry to my car, ok?
There's a mosque in the heart of Detroit and
it's run by an Imam who started a soup kitchen
I want the kids to be able to see that that's part of Muhammad's message.
- This is the exit right here. - Hang on everybody it's a sharp turn.
Hajji is like not a good driver.
Listen, I'm a good driver.
This is the first test. If you can't pass this test the rest of it's off.
The majority of the ones that come for the soup kitchen are non-Muslim.
It's only about, maybe one or two people that are Muslim that come for the soup kitchen.
And we let them know that it's a part of who we are, as to why we're doing this.
It's a part of what God has commanded for the Muslims, for a human being to be charitable.
I'm studying to be ordained as a Catholic Deacon, so I had run into
Abdullah when he made a presentation about Islam and uh...
I was really attracted to the works of this mosque.
I was never aware that there was an active part of Muslim faith life
that really reached out to the poor. I wasn't even sure that it was part of your creed.
Abdullah went through misunder standings that would commonly exist...
he started with the term Black Muslim.
What does that bring to mind?
And honestly it brought to mind certain things that would make you fearful.
Certain kinds of maybe aggressive behavior, nationalistic kinds of thinking
you know, as if we are going carve ourselves off from the others and have no fellowship.
He said if I tell you what the stereotypes are that I have of Catholics
when you listen to them, you'll say oh those are
extreme examples, those are not what we are about.
Dearborn is the place where the early immigrants of
Arab, Lebanese and Middle Eastern people came and settled down.
This country embraced them and opened its door for them.
Yet they needed time to adjust and go through that
difficulty they faced when they came to this country.
It's two different societies, two different cultures.
Najah and Ali Bazzy are raising their family in the suburbs of Dearborn.
Their children are third generation American Muslims.
We're trying to combine the best of both worlds and giving
our kids the family values that our parents teach and realize
that they live in, uh, you know, a land in the United States
which has, you know, many opportunities for our kids to prosper in.
- You still can't beat me. - I'll beat you tonight.
- Can you shoot five and 0? - I can shoot 5 and 0 from anywhere.
- 5 and 0 anywhere? - Right now? Let's go.
Like many Dearborn families the Bazzy's struggle daily to balance the
sometimes conflicting demands of their faith and modern American society.
Their daughter Nadia, has decided to wear the hijab
or head covering, that was first worn by Muhammad's wives.
Many Muslim women still wear the hijab as a sign of modesty and piety.
Well, we're gonna back you one way or the other.
That's a given.
Our daughter came to us and said, I made a decision.
And she's 16 now.
And she said, I've decided that I want to wear hijab.
The last time when you put it on, right?
You made me take it off.
No, I didn't make you take it off.
I sort of persuade you thinking, try and bring it out the other, end of the light of it, right?
And you resented me for that, correct?
I just thought maybe if you go through high school
and then put it on after high school, that then
if then, at least at that point in life, you'll
be able to see what you want to do in life, and that.
Because you gotta understand something.
You know, you never know where you're gonna be and where you're gonna go in life.
I mean, it's, sure, this hijab is accepted in
our community here, and, you know, you maybe do well.
And you end up being a doctor or a lawyer
whatever, you'll be doing very well for yourself.
But look what just happened to you when you went down to Tennessee.
I mean, here you have her driving a bus
and the state police trooper wants to stop over, we've
got a whole bus full of people, because he sees hijabs.
I think for Nadia, he probably feels much like I feel.
There is great reverence for it, and then there's that
that oh my gosh, I want to protect my daughter from the world.
I don't want people to think she's a terrorist.
I don't want people to think she's oppressed.
I don't want people to think I'm her father, I made her put that on her head.
All of those kinds of things come into play.
I don't think Baba is, you know, trying to hurt you here.
He's trying to show you a picture of the real world, and
what you need to do is show him a real picture of your world.
He's a father, he has some legitimate concerns.
So my point is that you're still the same Nadia.
Ali, maybe she's not done talking to you.
You've talked to her.
Give her a few minutes and now let her talk to you.
Do you know that I'm, that I'm doing this for myself and for you?
Remember something. You're not doing it for me. You're doing it for yourself and God.
You're the one who has to answer to God.
- So do you. - I will answer to God. Don't worry about that.
I have my positives and my negatives in life and I will answer to God, don't worry about it.
Baba, all that I do is a reflection of you.
You're in good shape, then. You're in good shape, right?
So are we at peace?
I never knew we were at war
Muhammad also tells you that, you know
you should always give what's best, uh, for your daughter.
And me as a father, I'm just trying to give my daughter the opportunity.
To be able to see, uh, life from a wider angle and a bigger perspective.
People would immigrate into different parts of the country, but what was interesting is
that they would all manage to find their way into Dearborn, a great many of them.
And the reason for that is because the mosques were in place.
Dearborn's newest mosque will be the largest in North America.
Like the first mosque in Medina, it is being built with help from the entire community.
There's great feelings of ownership to the mosque when the community builds it.
People are baking food. Every year they contribute between
$50,000 to $100,000 to the income and the operating costs of our mosque.
So, we have the building of this mosque, kind of metaphorically
and the laying of the bricks and this new foundation
with all these new immigrants in Dearborn.
And everybody brings their contribution.
Prophet Muhammad established the first center in Medina
for Muslims and that was his mosque.
And it was not only a place where Muslims go and do their prayer, or
offer their supplication, it was the center for the entire community.
It was the headquarters of the Prophet.
He would become a judge and solve problems among people inside the mosque.
So he receives delegations, he would declare war or peace.
The mosque was serving multiple purposes in the life of Prophet Muhammad.
It was at the mosque that Muhammad discussed
a sweeping change in strategy with his followers.
After years of exercising restraint in the face of persecution by the Meccans
Muhammad received a clear new revelation
that marked a dramatic departure from the past.
It gave the Muslims limited permission to take up arms in self-defense.
The statesman was about to become a general.
For 13 years, there's been no sanction to fight.
Then a revelation comes that says
those who have been removed unjustly from their homes, and
have been fought because of their religious beliefs
are sanctioned to fight to defend themselves.
Killing is always abhorrent, the QURAN makes it very clear about that
and the QURAN says that it's always wrong to start a war, to be an aggressor.
But persecution is worse than killing.
When people have been driven from their homes, or deprived of their basic human rights
when an evil ideology comes into the world, sometimes
regrettably, it may be necessary to fight and sometimes lives will be lost.
Muhammad's first large military engagement occurred near the town of Badr, when
313 Muslims set out to surprise a caravan from Muhammad's own tribe, the Quraysh.
In a sense, the battle of Badr, which became such a landmark
in Muslim history, ah was a sort of mistake.
Ah, the Muslims had planned a conventional raid but
the Meccans, when they heard that this band of renegades
was attacking their great caravan
were so enraged they sent out the whole army against them.
And the Muslims were convinced that they were going to die.
He never wanted to fight the Meccans.
I mean, the Meccans are his people, uh, his, his friends, his family.
He wants to co-opt them, he wants to make them the key, if you will to the new
Islamic Ummah that he's trying to form, so he doesn't want to go to war with them.
As he prepared to lead the Muslims into battle, Muhammad took
the unprecedented step of establishing clear rules of engagement for his army.
He makes it very clear to his soldiers
that if they have the right to use force against the Qurayshy
that does not mean that they will do the same thing
that has been done in pre-Islamic wars.
In which women and children could be killed
in which no prisoners could be taken, no quarter given.
He said Islam is a religion of law.
The Meccans had sent an army of about 1,000 men.
As the army approached, Muhammad prepared to make a stand near a well.
One of his soldiers suddenly questioned his strategy
Has God revealed it to you? he asked, "Or is it your own opinion?"
When Muhammad answered that he was speaking as a man, not a prophet
the soldier suggested that they stop at a larger well closer
to the enemy, so they could deprive them of water.
Muhammad agreed at once.
The change in strategy proved decisive, and the Muslims recorded a resounding triumph.
It was a victory that stunned the Muslims.
It seemed like a complete reversal, like a miracle.
Almost a sort of revelation of God in history.
A Furqan, they called it.
Something that separated the just from the unjust.
After the battle, Muhammad received a revelation claiming the victory for God.
The Muslims felt that angels had been fighting alongside them.
The victory reaffirmed their belief that God was on their side
and raised Muhammad's status higher still.
But his followers also knew that the Meccans would seek violent retribution.
A year later, an army of 3,000 Meccans
returned to face 1,000 Muslims in the battle of Uhud.
The resulting rout left the future of Islam in mortal peril.
It was a horrible battle.
And the corpses of the Muslims were mutilated by the Meccans.
And the Meccan women, as was their wont
came out onto the battlefield and danced around the corpses.
Sixty-five of Muhammad's soldiers lost their lives in the battle
including a Rabbi who had honored the Medina Pact
by fighting alongside Muhammad.
The families of the fallen Muslims were now without protectors.
Then, Muhammad received a new revelation
allowing Muslim men to safeguard these women and children
by taking as many as four wives, but only if they could treat them equally.
That, in itself, in the context of Arabia, was a bit of a restriction
because a man could have unlimited number of wives
the context of the permission to polygamy
is to say who is going to look after these women.
It was an act of faith, not an act of lust that inspired men to take more wives.
So, it would be wrong to think of the Prophet as basking
decadently in the garden of sensual delights with his harem.
His harem was very much a matter of state
and sometimes his wives were rather a mixed blessing.
Although Muhammad was monogamous during Khadija's life, after her death
he eventually married a number of women
including one of the Uhud widows, Umm Salama.
The reason for his marriages were really political alliances.
It was a tribal society, and for Muhammad to marry into another tribe and
take a wife just meant that there was a bond being created with this tribe.
Among Muhammad's wives were the daughters of his two closest allies
Abu Bakr and Umar.
Abu Bakr's daughter, Aisha, would become
one of the most influential women in his life.
Aisha was very lively. She was, uh, brilliant.
She was somebody that questioned the prophet.
She was not somebody in any way that um took everything, she questioned him.
She said, what does that mean?
Uh, why did you do this, why did you do that?
Um, she was somebody that really had a, an incredibly active mind.
She memorized vast amounts of prophetic traditions, and she's considered to be
actually, the transmitter of a large number
of, uh, traditions from the prophet Muhammad.
In the year that followed the battle of Uhud, the Meccans girded themselves
for a final assault that they hoped would finish off the Muslims once and for all.
They assembled one of the largest armies
ever seen in Arabia and marched on Medina.
But Muhammad hit upon a daring defense.
Muhammad has dug a trench around the whole of the settlement.
And you have an almost comic scene with the Meccan cavalry
galloping up to this trench, and pulling back in horror, and saying what is this?
They've never seen anything so unsporting in their lives.
This is something, they say, the Arabs don't do.
It sounds comical but surrounded by the powerful Meccan army
the Muslims were expecting all to be killed, to a man, to a woman.
Stopped by the trench around Medina, the Meccans laid siege
to the city and to the hundreds of Muslim families trapped inside.
According to the Muslim sources, in their determination
to defeat Muhammad, the Meccans had recruited
as allies many Bedouin tribes
as well as the largest Jewish tribe within Medina, the Bani Qurayzah.
For the Muslims, this defection was the final blow
in a relationship that had been strained from the beginning.
When Muhammad came to town
the organized Jewish community did not accept his prophecy.
There were, according to the Islamic sources
some individual Jews that did accept him
but for the most part the community as a whole did not.
If the Jews would accept his Prophethood, then he has
tremendous and complete confirmation of his Prophethood.
But the Jews were so well respected that when they rejected his prophethood
and they did it actively
they became a very serious political threat to his very existence in Medina.
Despite the aid of the Bani Qurayzah
the Meccan siege could not break through the Muslim defenses.
When the weather turned bad
and as the Bedouin tribes began deserting the field of battle
the Meccans themselves lost heart and departed
abandoning their Jewish allies to be tried by the Muslims for the crime of treason.
Islamic sources believe that the Jews did indeed
aid the enemy in trying to defeat Muhammad.
This was absolutely against the terms of the Media agreement.
The Jews and the Muslims decided that they would choose
an arbitrator to determine what would be the future of the Jews.
The person who was chosen was a man
who was mortally wounded in the Battle of the Trench.
And so he determined that the women and children of the Bani Qurayzah
would be taken as slaves to the Muslims, and the men would be killed.
The Prophet agreed with this judgement.
When he judged he said
that you have judged according to God and his messenger.
And then, uh, approximately 700 men
uh, were killed. Uh, they were executed.
So, this definitely occurred.
All that can be said is that, this cannot be seen as anti-Semitism, per se.
MUHAMMAD had nothing against the Jewish people per se, or the Jewish religion.
The QURAN continues to tell Muslims to honor the People of the Book.
And to honor their religion as authentic.
And the Jewish tribes who had not rebelled
who had not given help to the MECCANS
continued to live in MEDINA, completely unmolested.
MUHAMMAD was not trying to exterminate Jews.
He was trying to get rid of very dangerous internal enemies.
It's unfortunate that many historians and particularly in contemporary times
both on the Jewish and on the Muslim side, uh, have transformed this.
On the Jewish side, they have used that as a way of saying
well, you see, the Muslims hate the Jews and they kill them.
And, and on the Muslim side, it says
well, you see, the Jews are full of treachery and can't be trusted.
Both are wrong.
When the other tribes of the peninsula saw the impotence of Mecca
with all its power and might against this little community
they began to switch allegiance and see that Muhammad was the coming man.
Now once that happened, once the tide had been turned
after the battle of the trench, and
the Muslims were no longer subject to the fear of extermination
Muhammad stopped the fighting.
The Prophet Muhammad received a few people
militants who just arrived from one of the battles that
they came back from and, they felt so important that
we finished this job fighting with the enemies of Islam.
And the Prophet smiled and he said let me tell you something.
You finished the minor Jihad and now you have the bigger Jihad ahead of you.
And they were stunned.
They thought that they just finished the biggest achievement
in their life by being willing to sacrifice their own life.
And the Prophet explained that the biggest Jihad
is struggle against your own desires and limitations.
Jihad does not mean holy war, primarily.
The word means effort, striving.
And it's always a hard struggle to put the word of God into practice.
When the Quran talks about struggling or
they're not talking always about fighting a holy war
they're talking about this immense struggle to implement
a divine imperative in the flawed and tragic conditions of daily life.
Fighting might sometimes have to be done as part of the Jihad
but it is by no means the major imperative.
I remember a quotation from Jesus, peace be upon him(PBUH)
who says that the first step in the reformation
journey is to start with your own self.
If you want to reform the society you have to reform yourself first.
And that was basically the meaning of Jihad.
The Prophet put that emphasis on inner development.
Jihad, the constant struggle with yourself, to improve yourself and perfect your intent.
That you do things only for the sake of God.
The most excellent Jihad, Holy struggle, is the struggle to control your ego, the self.
For a long time I was deathly afraid of speaking in public, of giving speeches.
And I saw that and I, well, this my Jihad, I've gotta overcome this fear.
If I'm gonna help people, it's gonna be necessary for me to talk in public.
To be able just to speak out.
And going back to 1987 I had become active as far as writing
articles for papers to have fire safe cigarette legislation enacted.
Cigarettes are the largest cause of fire fatalities in the nation.
So, I began writing and because of my position I could speak from
the authority as a fire fighter and, and now a Supervising Fire Marshal.
Going back to if you save one life it's like you saved all humanity.
Well I feel I was part of an effort
to save thousands of lives each year because
of this legislation that we passed in New York State.
Jihad is misused.
There is absolutely nothing in Islam that justifies, uh, the claim of
Osama bin Laden, Al Qaeda or other similar groups to kill innocent civilians.
That is unequivocally a crime under Islamic law.
Acts of terror violence that have occurred in the name of Islam
are not only wrong, they are contrary to Islam.
September 11th, I hooked up with two other fire marshals.
We found a place to park near the bridge, about several inches of soot.
If it had been white and colder out, you would have sworn it was snow.
We came over the Brooklyn Bridge, uh it was just like something out of a movie.
It was very quiet, you know, that muffled sound that you have during a blizzard
you know, where you can't hear your feet hitting the ground, it's just very muffled
So we put on our turn out gear and we started heading over there.
And it's just, I think I could speak for all of
we were just all in a state of shock and disbelief.
I just felt, oh, in the back of my head, please don't be Muslims doing this.
And I just felt ah, I just felt sick.
We could see this fragment of the
World Trade Center sticking up almost like a lopsided crown.
Then we started walking down one way and
we saw some fire fighters, you know
dazed and shell shocked, saying don't go down there
there's still more collapses happening.
I mean, we were dying to go out there and do something.
And, you know, we're figuring that some of the brothers or even
anyone, you know, people could still be alive, trapped under the rubble.
But, we just, it was frustrating, but, I mean
you have to understand that they don't want to lose more people
on top of the people who are lost already.
This is just, I mean, it was just out and out madness what they did.
The Prophet himself in the course of the circumstances engaged in battle
in warfare, but he had a certain code of conduct that he followed.
So, you have to separate fanaticism, which every religion has
from the reality and the truth of that religion.
These are fanatics who have lost
sight of what the purpose of religion is and they're acting, you know, on their own.
What hurt me probably most of all, out of the World Trade Center attack
was that here is a religion that I entered because of the universality.
And the tolerance that is throughout the book and
throughout the sayings of Prophet Muhammad.
Yet, these people who did that and were behind it and planned it
were just so intolerant and
so disregarding of their own tenets
that they could do something so horrific and kill people in such a horrible
September 11th, underscored the need to have dialogue
with non-Muslims and other faiths
to understand each other and to try to resolve these hot spots that fester and cause
this type of hatred.
Uh, the death and destruction in New York City
that was caused by this terrible, terrible act in the name of Islam
has propelled the Muslim community in New York to respond in many different ways.
And one of the ways that I want to respond
is the way the Prophet would have responded.
To just talk about the humanity which we all belong to.
Since September 11 Muslims have gone to churches
to synagogues, to schools to explain our faith.
However, people still kept asking
where are the Muslims and why aren't they doing something about it.
So I started thinking about this and I said, what is it that we are not doing right?
Maybe we need to respond in a more gentle way.
So I looked around for the mildest people in our community.
The artists in our community.
And the first person I called was Mohamed Zakariya.
Catastrophes have brought us here, but not all is lost.
Uh, through our art, we pick up all these broken pieces and
try to put them back together again and make something that's gonna work.
Revenge, suicide bombing, things of that kind they have no place in Islam.
They must never have a place in Islam, never.
Islam is really a soft thing, it's not a hard thing
And so we have to approach it with softness, and be soft to each other.
(Arabic) the Prophet said.
Make it easy and not difficult.
So we should put away all those angry words
the harsh, the strident rhetoric that
that we have been dealing with for all these years that we've suffered
through this sweet religion with this beastly stuff.
And come out into the light, and be bright.
Be bright in America.
And look in the mirror, that's what we have to do.
This piece is the golden rule of Islam.
It is the basis of the relations between people
It means that there is no harming of other people in Islam
and no returning or retaliating harm for harm.
And so that's why I did it.
To respond through the sayings of Muhammad the man.
By the year 628, the battles that had occupied
the Muslims for the preceding four years had come to an end.
Once the Muslims were no longer fearing the threat of total extermination
MUHAMMAD knew that the time for fighting had stopped.
And it was now time to make an extraordinary initiantive
a peaceful, nonviolent initiative.
He astonished the whole Muslim community
and the whole community of Yathrib by announcing that
he was going to go on the Hajj pilgrimage
Dangerous as it was, an enormously risky as it was
about a thousand Muslims volunteered to go with MUHAMMAD.
All the rites were fulfilled to the letter.
The camels all decked in their special sacrificial garments.
The men all in their white garb.
The Muslims set out on the perilous trip to Mecca
crossing the vast desert without any arms to defend themselves.
When they reached Hudaybiyah, just outside the sacred area around Mecca
where violence was forbidden
Muhammad surprised his followers not to enter, but to sit and wait.
He then sent an emissary to Mecca seeking permission to complete the pilgrimage.
MUHAMMAD knew of course, that he was putting the
people of MECCA into a really impossible position.
Because if they forbade Arabs, to enter the city and perform the rights of the Ka'aba
they would be abusing their position as guardians of the holy places.
The MECCANS themselves did not know what to do.
When the emissary did not return quickly, the Muslims feared the worst.
But Muhammad's gambit paid off.
The Meccans offered to negotiate a treaty.
With tensions running high
Muhammad began dictating its first line by stating his own name.
Ali was taking down the notes with the MECCAN negotiator at his side
and when MUHAMMAD began to saying
the Prophet of God, the MECCAN saids, I don't believe you are the Prophet of God
I can't sign to that.
So he said fine, Muhammad, Son Of Abdullah.
And many of the Muslims felt that this was a major insult.
The Muslims, sitting around Hudaybiyah watched this in utter dismay.
There was almost a mutiny.
A thousand pilgrims stood, refusing to accept this.
MUHAMMAD went back into his tent where he had his wife, Umm Salama.
And he said to her, what shall I do?
And she gave him some excellent advice
part of the ritual of the HAJJ was that you sacrificed a camel.
And he went out and he sacrificed one of the camels
and somehow some kind of necessary tension was released.
The ritual sacrifice of an animal traditionally marked the end of the pilgrimage.
Grudgingly, the Muslims considered the pilgrimage complete
and headed back to Medina.
Muhammad had compromised on every major point in the treaty.
But he had won the most significant concession.
In return for postponing their entry into Mecca for a year
the Muslims had secured ten years of peace
and official recognition as a political entity.
Muhammad had proved himself as capable a diplomat as he was a religious leader.
There was wisdom in the treaty
because one of the things that was promised to the Muslims
was protection as they moved throughout Arabia.
That they would not be harmed and they could move freely.
And what was gained most greatly from that was the dauwa, the teaching of al-Islam.
On the way back to Medina, Muhammad told a companion, Umar
I have received a revelation which is dearer to me than anything else beneath the sun.
it said, "Surely", "We have given you a clear victory."
Then more and more and more people came to Islam
more and more people turned to MUHAMMAD.
It sent out a huge signal of strength.
Strength of purpose, utter courage, utter panache, and utter wisdom that, of course
you could go on to fight
of course he could have gone on being the prophet with the sword
but there are times when to make peace is more daring
more creative, and more enduring.
One year after signing the Hudaybiyah treaty,
Muhammad led his followers on a new pilgrimage to Mecca.
After years of rejection, persecution, and humiliation
this was truly a moment of triumph.
The first pilgrimage of the Muslims
after Hudaybiyah must have been an extraordinary event for everybody.
Because the MECCANS couldn't bear it.
They decamped and went and sat up in the hills and mountains outside the city, and
watched this procession, huge procession of Muslims, and some of their confederates
coming on the HAJJ, and as it were, taking possession of the city
crying out the pilgrim cry, here I am, oh, God, here I come, in a huge cry.
Then came the moment Muhammad had waited seven long years to achieve.
Muhammad sends Bilal, an African ex-slave
this lowest of the low in the eyes of the Meccans
up on to the sacred shrine of the Ka'aba
what the Meccans regard as their shrine
to deliver the call to prayer.
And the hills around Mecca are granite.
They're set up for a sonorous voice.
And the call to prayer resonates through the valley.
Bilal was proclaiming for all to hear, there is one God and Muhammad is his Prophet.
It must have been an appalling moment for the MECCANS.
But an extraordinary moment of exhilaration for the Muslims.
Performing all the rites punctiliously
and then taking no advantage of this, going back peacefully home.
But the peace between the Muslims and the people of Mecca would not last.
By the end of the year, the Meccans had broken the Treaty of Hudaybiyah
by attacking a clan allied with Muhammad.
In response, 10 days into the holy month of Ramadan
Muhammad and a Muslim army of 10,000 men set out to take Mecca by force.
The Prophet felt he was strong enough to be able to conquer MECCA.
But as the army approached the city, more and more leaders of the Quraysh
realized that they were not going to win, and so many decided to join Islam.
The prophet entered the city without resistance.
When he came into Mecca he came in with his head bowed down.
He did not come in as, as, as an arrogant conquering warrior.
He comes in humbled by a victory that he sees is from God.
After circling the Ka'aba seven times
Muhammad destroyed each of the three hundred sixty idols that surrounded it.
He then turned to the vanquished Meccans who had sought refuge inside the shrine.
His own brethren, who had oppressed and attacked the Muslims for so many years.
He says, if you were in my position right now, what do you think you would do
and the Meccans are afraid they're about to die.
And then he says, you are all pardoned.
He grants them all amnesty.
And this was unheard of in this culture, unheard of in this society.
And very unexpected among the Meccans.
The religion that had begun in ridicule and persecution
was now thriving throughout the Arabian peninsula.
But shortly after returning to Medina, Muhammad received a premonition of his death.
He told his daughter Fatima that every year during Ramadan
the angel Gabriel recited the Quran to him and asked him to repeat it.
This year Gabriel had asked Muhammad to recite the Quran twice.
I cannot but think, Muhammad said, that my time has come.
In February 632
Muhammad made what would be his final pilgrimage to the city of his birth.
On his first pilgrimage, he had led a few hundred Muslims back to Mecca.
This time, tens of thousands of believers followed in his footsteps.
He arrives in Mecca
as the leader of the Muslim people now, not as the enemy of the Meccans.
And they begin to perform the rites of the pilgrimage.
And during this period
Muhammad defines the rites of pilgrimage as they're performed today.
Michael Wolfe has written extensively about the Hajj
the traditional pilgrimage which every Muslim is expected to perform at least once.
Two to three million Muslims from around the world travel to Mecca
every year for this five day ritual, which takes them in the footsteps of Abraham
the ancient patriarch from whom Muslims, Jews, and Christians all trace their lineage.
In 1990 Michael Wolfe, a convert to Islam, took part in his first Hajj.
The Hajj was one of the most attractive elements
in Islam to me as a non-Muslim and then as a Muslim.
When I finally became a Muslim after 20 or more years of thinking it over
the first thing I wanted to do was make the Hajj.
When I circled the Ka'aba for the first time, I was in a state of wonder.
You're there with ten of thousands of people, all doing the same thing at once.
You're literally putting God at the center of your life.
For that period of time.
At the culmination of the Hajj, on the Plain of Arafat
on a small hill called the Mount of Mercy, Muhammad gave his final sermon.
Here is a man who began his mission as this individual in Mecca, persecuted, with
with almost no followers, and his life is completed with a valley filled
with tens of thousands of people, uh, that have accepted his message.
And, and there he is, preaching to them his final sermon.
And in it in a sense is a summation of this universal teaching.
He tells them to be good to each other, and not to violate each other's rights.
For men and women to treat each other humanely, for brothers and sisters to treat
each other well, and for Muslims to treat each other as brothers and sisters.
And perhaps most importantly, he calls an end to revenge, to blood killing
to the vendetta
which has bled this culture terribly since he was born.
At the end of Muhammad's sermon, he does not list his achievements.
This man has unified people.
He has taught them monotheism.
He has brought them to peace.
And yet he doesn't mark these as his accomplishments.
Quite the opposite, he asks his community
"Have I fulfilled my mission"
"To my God, and to you?"
You can hear in his words the desire for a completed mission.
This is a man of faith who is unsure of his affects.
It's a very human moment in which he needs to know, and he asks
and the people affirm that yes, three times they say, yes
you have fulfilled your mission.
This, was not a leader who was looking for his legacy in time.
It wasn't for any purpose other than to make sure that
when he was going to face his maker, he was going to be accountable.
And he was, he would be in a position of saying Allah, I did the best I could.
And, and I hope I was successful in doing it.
Uh, and that's all what we can do as human beings.
I think that if I were to say that I hope to exemplify
any part of Prophet Muhammad's life
it would be the issues around the dignity near the end of life.
He's a good friend of mine and I know he knows my voice.
And now I know for sure he knows my voice.
I'm visiting Mr. Hamoud, who is a patient that's terminal.
When he was not in the condition he's in now, he was very delightful
very loving and very much wanting to tell his story
so we'd sit and listen and talk for long hours and
he'd give me all his history and his past, so we're very bonded.
Um, he's slipped into a more terminal stage, meaning less responsive.
Well he responds, he's just unable to speak.
Prophet Muhammad has taught us that near the time of death, the holy Quran
to hear is soothing, very soothing to the soul.
And since it's a part of our lives on a daily basis anyway
we derive great comfort from the hearing of the Quran.
While I'm stroking a head or I'm speaking softly
I say the things that I think Muhammad would say.
Muhammad has taught us that
we don't even understand, we could never comprehend
the value of taking care of the ill or providing for the dying
maintaining their dignity.
And I believe that that's my mission, to be the helper, to be the listener
to be a comforter in many ways.
The Prophet knew that death was coming
he had an indication that he would not be around for much longer.
MUHAMMAD had been feeling ill. He'd had some fever.
It was clear that he was in real difficulty in terms of his health.
And the household seemed to be convinced that MUHAMMAD was dying.
And while he was on his deathbed
and there were many who surrounded him, especially his close companions and his family
he called for silence around him.
And he wanted it to be a time of quiet and of peace and of calm.
Embraced by the community he had founded in Medina and
cared for by his wives and companions
Muhammad died peacefully on June 8th, in the year 632.
The news of his death shocked his followers, especially Umar
who believed Muhammad would outlive them all.
People began to hear the Prophet is dead.
Umar went to the center square and started to say
there are hypocrites and liars who are saying that the Prophet is dead.
In the midst of this chaos, Abu Bakr reminded the Muslims of a verse from the Quran
that had first been revealed after the battle of Uhud
when they feared that Muhammad had been killed.
Abu Bakr, comes into this scene of pandemonium.
And he immediately, uh, stands up and says
whoever worshipped Muhammad, uh, then know that Muhammad is dead.
But whoever worshipped God, know that God lives on and never dies.
And so, suddenly these people are brought to their senses
that indeed that Muhammad is, is a man.
And men are mortal.
And, and this is his legacy.
He, he did everything within his power to prevent himself from being worshipped.
Because he recognized that that was a danger inherent in religious tradition.
That the object of worship becomes the messenger, and not
uh, the one sending the message.
Prophet Muhammad was a man, he was flesh and blood
who brought one of the most eloquent revelations to mankind.
He's set an example
to mankind through his behavior, through his actions, a living example.
This is a legacy that he has left for Muslims.
Muhammad's legacy is obviously the seed that he planted.
It is his righteousness, his honesty, his integrity
his model as uh as a political leader, his model as an individual
a man who has uh made great accomplishments in his time
and yet who didn't let the successes uh overpower him
didn't let his ego get the best of him.
He remains, I think, more than anything else a great role model.
MUHAMMAD is the kind of person
who combines political and military and social and religious
and intellectual dimensions of life in ways that are important
for those of us in the 21st century
who are struggling to put together complete lives ourselves.
If I were to have met Prophet Muhammad on the street, I feel like I would know him.
And as though he would know all of us.
The beauty of it is, we live our lives through his examples, but he's not God.
Our reverence is to God.
And our reference is to him.
So how I walk, and how I speak, and how I carry myself
and how I treat my husband, and how I treat my mother and my father
and how I behave as a sister and a daughter
and a nurse and a friend and a neighbor
that's all prophet Muhammad in action.
There's more about Muhammad and his legacy on PBS online.
Experience a virtual pilgrimage to Mecca
read essays by people from the program, and much more.
Visit PBS online at PBS.org
To purchase a videocassette of Muhammad,
or a DVD with additional features, call 888-786-0444.
Major funding for Muhammad: Legacy of a Prophet" has been provided by..."
The Corporation for Public Broadcasting
The David and Lucile Packard Foundation
Arabian Bulk Trade
Sabadia Family Foundation
The El-Hibri Foundation
The Irfan Kathwari Foundation
And Mir Imran
Additional funding has been provided
by many other organizations and individuals.
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