Planets The 2 - Terra Firma
a robotic spacecraft|flew by the planet Jupiter.
There it found an uncharted body|the size of our moon.
On that small world,
it observed something|almost unbelievable.
(Music: "The Planets"|by Gustav Holst)
We live on an active planet.
The rock itself is alive.
The Earth spits out|hot lava, creating new land.
It is a sight|we can only watch in awe.
I find it overwhelming|to look inside a volcano
and see hot lava oozing out.
It's like the lifeblood|of the planet.
For a geologist like Jim Head,
the Earth is an inspiration|to look further afield.
What does it look like|on the other planets?
'Would there be|hot lava? Volcanoes?
'Would we see ocean basins?
'We had absolutely no clue.'
The history of this planet|is written in its rocks.
Over hundreds of|millions of years,
mountain ranges have risen up,
entire continents|have drifted apart.
Is this how|other worlds would be?
Earth's celestial partner,|the Moon,
could hardly be more different.
Nothing has happened|on this dusty world
for billions of years.
Its surface shows only the scars|of countless asteroid impacts.
The story of the other planets
must also be locked|on their surfaces.
But they are so far away,|they are just dots of light.
Astronomers gazed at those dots,
but only on one of them|could they make out anything
that looked remotely|like the landforms of the Earth.
It was the red disc of Mars.
Over a century ago,
an Italian astronomer,|Giovanni Schiaparelli,
began to chart the dark|and light regions of Mars.
His maps were the best we had|until space probes came along.
In 1964,|NASA launched Mariner 4.
Its mission was to fly past Mars
and try to send back|close-up pictures.
The mission was|a technical success,
but the fuzzy images|showed nothing interesting -
just craters|like those on the Moon.
Astronomers were convinced
the probe had looked|in the wrong place.
Brad Smith had spent years|gazing at the Red Planet.
He thought he knew where|the interesting terrain was.
For the next mission,
NASA asked him|to guide them to it.
'I had been observing Mars|for quite some time'
through ground-based telescopes,
and had noticed certain regions|that were very changeable.
They changed with the seasons|and had colours.
'We thought those would be|particularly interesting.
'I set up the targeting|so that Mariner 6 and 7
'would look at these particular|areas during the approach.'
As Mariners 6 and 7|raced towards Mars,
they saw what appeared|to be mountains,
dark plains, deep canyons.
But when the close-ups|came back,
Brad and NASA|were once again disappointed.
'Unfortunately, the surface|was very heavily cratered.
'There were dark|and light areas,
'but it was still a lot|like looking at the Moon.'
Convinced that there had to be|more than just craters on Mars,
NASA went back again.
Only this time the element|of chance had been removed.
Mariner 9 was not|a quick fly-by.
It was designed to go|into orbit around Mars,
and photograph every|square foot of the planet.
But as the probe closed in,
a large dust storm|began to stir.
'I was watching the planet,'
hoping it wouldn't be a bad one.
But within just|a matter of days,
a brilliant|yellow cloud developed.
'We knew it was|a bad dust storm.
'It spread across the planet,
'covering up everything.'
Mariner sat out the storm.
Then it saw something|poking up through the dust.
'We saw these four dark spots.'
We weren't quite sure|what they were.
'One of our team members had|pointed out there were things
'that looked like|the tops of volcanoes.'
He suggested that in fact,|these were volcanoes so high,
they were poking up|through the dust.
As the dust receded,
the four spots|showed themselves.
They were volcanoes.
The biggest of them was|christened Olympus Mons.
It was 15 miles high,
three times the size of Everest.
Mars was not just another moon.
It was a real world.
Geologists were eager to|draw comparisons with the Earth.
Jim Head went straight to|the biggest volcanoes he knew,
on the island of Hawaii.
I remember when Olympus Mons|first came out of the clouds.
It was spectacular,|this gigantic volcano.
I couldn't wait|to get back to Hawaii
to get some sense|of perspective and scale
from something I knew about.
'We're on the edge of one of|the largest volcanoes on Earth.
'It's tiny|compared to Olympus Mons.'
To travel from the central|crater of Olympus Mons
to its outer edge|is a journey of 300 miles.
In between, there's an area|the size of France
covered with crumbling red lava.
But the volcanoes weren't all.
As the dust withdrew,
Mariner 9's cameras took|thousands more pictures.
A whole new world|was taking shape.
NASA called in|a new type of scientist -
'When this thing|began to shape up,'
and we saw these features,|that was the first time
planet Mars had ever taken shape
in terms of knowing|its physical features.
'None of that|had ever been seen before.'
'It was a historical moment.'
You start, like with an orange,
peeling the peel off
and exposing the planet|for what it is.
As Mariner's cameras tracked|across the belly of Mars,
a giant fissure appeared.
'Each day, we get|a new set of images.'
As they mosaiced, we said
"Look at that,|where is it going?"
It stretched across roughly|an eighth of the planet.
They had discovered the biggest|geological feature ever seen.
'Vallis Marineris|is 4,000 miles across
'and maybe 100 miles|at its widest
'and as much as six miles deep.'
On the scale|of the United States,
over there would be|San Francisco,
and over here would be New York.
So it would span|the United States.
This little canyon here
is the size of the Grand Canyon.
The Vallis Marineris|probably cracked open
when the four giant volcanoes|to its north
pushed up and stretched|the very skin of the planet.
Martian geology|is written on a scale
that dwarfs the Earth's.
Features like Vallis Marineris|and Olympus Mons
had been steadily growing|for billions of years.
It suggested the surface|of the planet did not move,
unlike the drifting continents|of the Earth.
Mariner 9 had gone|in search of geological life
and had found it.
'It was a very active planet,
'a planet that had|real geology going on,'
even in modern geologic history.
But was it all history?
Was Mars a graveyard|of geological features,
or were the volcanoes|still active?
To find out,
a probe had to land|on the planet's surface.
Gerry Soffen was|the mission scientist.
'The point of Viking|was to be the first time'
you really explored|the surface of the planet.
The Mariners had orbited|or flown by the planet,
but the idea of getting|a lander on the surface...
'It was as important|as Columbus's voyage.'
I was terrified|we wouldn't land successfully
because I had spent|so much of my life
aimed at this great|moment in history.
'15,480 feet per second.
On July 20th, 1976,
Viking dropped|into Mars's upper atmosphere
and began its descent.
(Landing countdown )
'When the landing took place,'
it was like...it was|two minutes ago.
'I can see every single face|and the expectation.'
The signals from Viking|took 18 minutes
to travel back|to mission control.
There was nothing|to do but wait.
'When the touchdown came,|I just exploded inside.'
We have touchdown.
The idea of being|there in history,
when the first landing on Mars|took place, was thrilling.
And now the real waiting began.
What would the surface|of Mars look like?
Was it going to be|like some place in the US -
a desert, sandy, dusty?
'All we knew is|it was going to be red.'
An hour after Viking landed,
the first black and white|pictures began to creep back.
Line by line, the surface|of Mars was revealed.
Then came colour pictures.
The surface was littered|with rocks,
some of them dark and porous,|clearly volcanic.
They must have been|hurled there by volcanoes.
We knew there were|volcanoes on Mars,
but to see a piece|was astonishing.
But when had the pieces|landed there?
Viking carried a device|to find out
whether Mars was still active -
a seismometer to tell|if the ground was shaking.
Viking listened and waited|but felt nothing.
For all its spectacular|volcanoes and canyons,
it seemed geological activity|on Mars was a thing of the past.
While the Americans were putting|all their efforts into Mars,
the Russians headed for Venus.
This world is almost|as large as the Earth,
and geologists always thought|it would be our twin.
But Venus was no easy target.
The surface was hidden|by a thick blanket of cloud,
and below that serene exterior,
the conditions were hellish.
The pressure of the atmosphere
had already crushed|three Soviet probes.
The Russians had found|to their cost
that the surface temperature was|nearly 500 degrees centigrade.
In 1975, they tried again,
and equipped their probe|with a camera.
They hoped it would|cling on long enough
to send back just one picture|of the surface.
Mission chiefs didn't want|anyone to know it might fail.
Seconds after landing,
signals showed Venera 9's|systems were intact.
On the surface, the temperature|was hotter than an oven.
Would the probe survive|to send back the image?
The camera had captured|a blurred view of some rocks.
It was the first-ever image|of the surface of Venus.
But it was only|a tantalising glimpse.
With their next probe,
the Russians hoped|for something better.
On landing, all systems|radioed back OK,
but there was no image|of the surface.
Sasha Basilevsky was on the team
that tried to work out|what had gone wrong.
We had a technical meeting|and discussion,
and the chief designer|at that time said,
"You know, I have an idea
"that we have landed in|something sticky and viscous."
And a young, nasty voice said,
"Yes, sir, in the shit."
But Venera had not sunk.
The intense heat on the surface
had melted the lens cap|on to the camera.
Three years later,
another pair of probes|headed for Venus.
This time, they took|beautiful pictures
of a lava-filled patch|of ground.
But when the probe tried|to sample Venusian rock,
that lens cap|came back to haunt them.
'In Venera 14 as in Venera 13,'
they had a special device|to measure electric
and mechanical properties|of the surface.
This arm puts the device|on the surface and measures.
'Venera 13 did it|in a perfect way
'but it just got the cap.'
So, we measured the mechanical|and electrical properties
of that thing|they brought from Earth.
On the planet's surface,|the probes could only survive
for an hour or two at most.
Another way had to be found|to see through the clouds.
In 1989, NASA launched Magellan.
Magellan wouldn't take pictures
but would scan|the planet with radar
to make out the contours|of the surface,
cutting through the clouds|as if they weren't there.
We were able to come around|the globe every day many times
and build up a picture|of the global geology of Venus.
Magellan began|to send back reams of data -
and a new generation of|geologists set to work on it.
'When the first image came back,|I went in at 4 in the morning'
and looked at this first track
down the planet.
'To see the planet surface|revealed in such detail,'
to say "I'm one of the first|to ever look at this,"
'you felt like|such an explorer.'
The first images showed
that Venus had|many similarities to Earth.
'There were|large mountain ranges,'
some of them almost|similar to the Himalayas.
There were long faults|on the planet
that looked similar|to faults on the Earth.
'There were lots|of very large volcanoes,
'some larger than on the Earth,|others on a similar scale.'
But then an alien|landscape emerged.
'There were these huge|circular features.
'By huge, I mean|250-300 kilometres across.
'They were encircled by ridges.
'They were high,|sort of mountainous.
'They tended to have volcanoes|all over the surface.
'How could they have formed?
'We'd never seen|anything like them.'
The 3-D images revealed|giant blisters
that had oozed lava|from every crack.
And the surface of Venus|seemed to be cut with channels.
'They looked like long rivers,'
but with Venus' incredibly|high surface temperatures,
there's no way water|could have formed them.
'They had to have|been formed by lava.
'Other volcanic features|looked like pancakes.
'They had flat tops.'
Like someone had thrown|pancakes out onto the surface.
'Other volcanoes looked|like little squashed bugs.
'Everywhere you see|some volcanic feature,
'a flow, a weird channel -|it's dominated by volcanism.'
We weren't prepared|for that at all.
'It's intriguing|to look at this surface'
that you say should be|like the Earth.
It's not.|How did it get this way?
It's a puzzle.
That's what makes Venus|so interesting.
But when had this volcanic|surface formed?
Geologists tried to find out|by counting impact craters.
'When we got|the global picture,'
we looked for areas that had|high or low density of craters,
indicating old and young ages.
Looking at the Moon,|Mars or Mercury,
if an area has more craters,|it's older.
Fewer craters, it's younger.
Amazingly, the craters were|almost randomly distributed.
The whole planet|can't be the same age -
it's the size of the Earth.
How can the entire surface|form at the same time?
It didn't make sense.
What could have happened|for a planet
to create all its surface|at one time?
It was mystifying,|nobody could be sure.
We hadn't seen anything like it.
Venus may have been|catastrophically resurfaced
a few hundred million years ago.
The idea that Venus boiled over
in a planet-wide flood of lava
is still hotly debated.
But if it did,|and has now cooled down,
will it ever erupt again?
It would be exciting to find|an erupting volcano on Venus,
to say "Here's proof, Venus|is still geologically active.
"It really is like the Earth.
"It's not a dead planet,|it's still alive, active."
That's something I'd give|a lot to be able to find.
Magellan scanned the planet|for four years,
but found no fresh lava flows.
Venus may well be alive,
but there is still|no sign of it.
If you orbited the Earth|for a year,
you may not see|any volcanic activity.
It's hard to tell|if it's going -
like trying to find the smoking|gun or the smoking volcano.
Despite being laid bare|by Magellan,
Venus remains a planet|shrouded in mystery.
Was Earth the only place
where geologists would find|active volcanoes?
It was beginning|to look that way.
The only other rocky planet|is Mercury,
but it's a small world,|barely bigger than our moon.
And its surface is just|as cratered and dead.
No geological activity|of any kind
has wiped Mercury's face clean.
Outside, it is baking hot,
but inside, stone cold.
There could be|no geology on Jupiter
and the other giant planets -
they have no solid surface.
There is some|solid rock out here.
On its way past Jupiter,
Voyager flew|by the planet's moons.
No one expected interesting|geology on these worlds.
We expected small objects|the size of the Moon
to be lifeless, geologically,
and to be holding records
of the very early solar system,
the impact processes,
and fairly esoteric|kinds of questions
that solar system geologists|might be interested in.
Not something the public|would care about.
'The first thing|we ran into was Callisto.
'That was what we had thought|these moons would look like.'
Callisto is dark and icy.
Like Mercury,|its cratered surface
hasn't changed|for billions of years.
The next moon, Ganymede, is|the largest in the solar system,
but it too held few surprises.
Circling closest|to the giant planet is Io,
a world about the size|of our moon.
As we looked at it|from a great distance,
we saw a lot of dark spots|on the surface
'which we thought|maybe were impact craters.'
Voyager took a few pictures,|sailed past Io,
and the scientists focused|on Jupiter itself.
Meanwhile, one of the engineers|busied herself
with some routine|spacecraft maintenance.
I came in about 9 o'clock that|morning to the navigation area.
The tape with the pictures
the spacecraft had taken|the day before was on my desk.
I put them on the computer|and displayed them.
I could see the moon of Io|was a crescent,
'as often our own moon is|in the night sky.
'I enhanced the brightness,
'and there appeared|beside Io a huge object
'that I couldn't recognise|and could never have expected.
'It completely captured|my attention.
'I wanted to know what that was.
'I asked myself|"My goodness, what is that?"'
The answer that occurred|to me first was
it looked like another moon|peeking out behind Io.
But there was no other moon,
and no fault in the camera.
Linda Hyder concluded this|object had to be part of Io.
'In fact, that was|very hard to accept'
because the size of it was|enormous with respect to Io.
'When I explored it,'
I found that this large, strange|object was exactly coincident
and fell over a heart shape|feature on Io.
'I had discovered a huge plume|of a volcanic eruption
'rising 270 kilometres|over the surface of Io
'and raining back down onto it.
'I had discovered|the first-ever'
volcanic eruption ever seen on|another world besides the Earth.
(Loud rumbling explosion )
'We didn't expect to find|active volcanic eruptions'
throwing material|from a volcanic vent
to an altitude|of a couple of hundred miles,
300 kilometres|above the surface.
It goes up with the velocity|of a high-powered rifle.
Of course, it comes back down|with the same velocity.
So, a healthy place to stand|would not be the surface of Io.
The entire surface of Io|is covered with volcanoes.
This moon is awash with|multi-coloured lava flows.
But why is Io an active world?
It's only the size of our moon.
It should be cold inside.
Head of the Voyager camera team|was Brad Smith.
Till now, he had concentrated|on Jupiter's atmosphere.
Now Io drew his attention.
'Io is small.'
It doesn't have have enough|of the radioactive materials
that heat up the rock|as on the Earth.
So we didn't expect|any volcanism on Io.
The explanation was to be found|in our own moon.
And a NASA scientist|in California had predicted it.
'The power of the Moon's gravity
'can move oceans on the Earth.'
Imagine what|the power of Jupiter -
300 times the mass|of the Earth - can have on Io.
'Io, as it circles Jupiter,
'approaches it closer|at one point than at another.'
This changes the gravitational|force from Jupiter
and results in a giant squeeze.
Physicist Ray Reynolds|had realised
that friction from the constant|wrenching by Jupiter
was heating up the interior of|Io to incredible temperatures.
We plugged in the numbers|into our equations,
and we come out|with thousands of degrees
near the surface|of this satellite.
This raised visions in our mind|of volcanoes going off.
But nobody was prepared|for the ferocity
of the sulphur-spewing volcanoes|that Voyager found.
'Io is just enormously|volcanically active,'
more active than the Earth
and any other body|in the solar system.
Nothing even comes close to it.
Its surface is completely|covered with volcanic debris.
Finally, geologists had found|a world that was alive
and changing before their eyes.
Draw a map of Io,
and it will be obsolete|the next day.
But Io wasn't the only surprise
Voyager found|among Jupiter's moons.
Next to it was|the bright disc of Europa.
'Europa was surprisingly smooth.
'There was little or no|topography on it at all.'
Scaled down, it'd be|as smooth as a billiard ball.
Why there was no topography,|we could only guess.
Close up,|the surface was baffling.
Looking at Europa, we see|a startling lack of craters.
We also see there are|large linear features
'that look like cracks|on the surface.'
Reynolds thought the cracks|might be a result
of the constant squeezing|from Jupiter's gravity,
just like at Io.
And there was a more|intriguing possibility.
Europa's surface is made of ice,
and that would be much easier|to melt than Io's solid rock.
Our calculations indicated|there was a good possibility
that there could be an ocean|beneath a thin ice layer.
Voyager's images were too crude
to prove or disprove the idea|of a subterranean ocean.
But 20 years later,|another spacecraft, Galileo,
is back for a closer look.
Europa's surface looks like|a crazy paving of ice.
There are giant icebergs|and a network of cracks
where it seems that hot water|has welled up from below
and then frozen|instantly in place,
like lava from a volcanic|fissure on Earth.
'Instead of hot rock coming out,|it's liquid water.'
But the principle is the same.
There's a fluid|down underneath the crust.
'From time to time,
'this pushes up and flows|onto the surface
'in the way hot lava flows|onto the surface of the Earth.'
No actual eruption of ice|has yet been spotted,
but Europa has opened up|the possibility
of completely new kinds|of geological activity.
As space probes ventured|further out,
they found other frozen worlds.
Among the moons|of Saturn and Uranus,
there were signs of strange|geological events.
But they all seemed|to have occurred aeons ago.
Then, a decade after|its encounter with Jupiter,
Voyager met Triton,|moon of Neptune.
As we got closer to Triton,
it became evident|it was a very tiny object.
It was covered|with bright material.
'That made it very cold -
'the coldest thing|we've encountered so far
'throughout the solar system.'
Triton is so cold
that even its thin|atmosphere of nitrogen
freezes into a solid|ice cap every winter.
To expect geologic activity
on such a surface|would be insane.
But when Voyager got close,
it saw there were dark streaks|all over the fresh ice cap.
The markings had to be sitting|on top of that ice.
They had to be laid down there|in the recent past.
That meant something had|to make them an active process.
Larry Soderblom spent two months
looking at pictures of Triton|before he spotted it.
He flickered images taken|from different angles
to give a 3-D view|of the surface.
Suddenly, he saw something
that seemed to stand up|from the ice.
'we were stunned|to find active geysers
'shooting up|above the Triton ice cap.'
Geysers - fountains of material,
rising five, ten kilometres -|miles above the surface.
Even in this dark corner|of the solar system,
the faint heat of the Sun|penetrates Triton's ice cap.
It warms liquid nitrogen|trapped beneath the surface
to a point where it bursts out|and rises up into space
before turning a right angle|in Triton's high altitude winds.
'It's as if Triton was|the last sentence
'in the message|from the Voyager mission:'
that no matter|where you go in the universe,
expect the unexpectable.
'It changed our whole concept|of what volcanism is.'
Our classical concept|before Voyager
was volcanism was hot rock
coming out of the interior|of a planet.
But Voyager showed us
there are other materials|as well that produce volcanism.
'On Io, we saw molten sulphur -|sulphur dioxide.
'On Europa, water is|an important element,
'and on Triton, liquid|nitrogen may be the fluid
'involved in volcanism.'
After so many amazing|discoveries
across the solar system,
geologists are now returning
to the Earth's|neighbouring planets.
In 1997, NASA returned to Mars
with a new orbiting spacecraft,
that's photographing the surface|in incredible detail.
Mars Global Surveyor can|pick out individual boulders
and can see places where they|have rolled down into gullies.
Was it wind or small tremors?
If there is|any activity on Mars,
Global Surveyor should find it.
'What we now see on Mars|is like a shot from a helicopter
'compared with a shot|from a space shuttle.'
The whole sense of Mars
is a little bit different
when you get down to|the detail we can see.
'We're just beginning|to get into that
'and get a sense|of what's going on on Mars.'
Soon, we will have a map of Mars
that's as detailed|as those of the Earth.
Now, when I come out to Hawaii,
my whole perspective|has changed.
I walk around|on the surface here,
and begin to see things that are|the same scale as on Mars.
It's exciting.|It has brought it together.
Almost like I'm walking|around on Mars.
This is how it's worked|with all the planets.
They were alien objects|you had little knowledge about.
But particularly from the|geology, you see old friends -
volcanoes, lava flows|and sand dunes.
Then, little by little,|you transport yourself there.
I dream about being on Mars.|It's amazing.
One day soon, a probe|may also return to Venus,
and perhaps survive for long|enough in its hostile atmosphere
to observe a volcano erupting.
We know now
that the Earth is just one|of a family of active worlds.
But geologists will never grasp
the true nature|of another planet
until they have|touched the stuff
that comes from deep within it.
The grand finale|is still to come.
If all goes to plan,
the Galileo probe will end|its mission and the millennium
with one of the most|breathtaking stunts
With its fuel spent
and suffering critical|radiation damage,
the dying spacecraft|will dive headlong
into a plume of fiery ash|from an erupting volcano on Io,
sampling with its last gasp|the geologist's Holy Grail:
P S 2004
P T U
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Play It Again Sam
Playing By Heart
Please Teach Me English (2003) CD1
Please Teach Me English (2003) CD2
Plumas de Caballo
Plunkett and Macleane
Pocketful of Miracles CD1
Pocketful of Miracles CD2
Pod Njenim Oknom (Beneath Her Window)
Poika ja ilves
Point Break - CD1 1991
Point Break - CD2 1991
Pokemon - Movie 1 - Mewtwo Strikes Back
Poker (2001) CD1
Poker (2001) CD2
Pokrovsky Gates The 25fps 1982
Pola X 1999 CD1
Pola X 1999 CD2
Police Academy (1984)
Police Academy 2 Their First Assignment 1985
Police Academy 3 Back in Training 1986
Police Academy 4 - Citizens on Patrol 1987
Police Story (2004) CD1
Police Story (2004) CD2
Police Story 2
Poltergeist 2 The Other Side 1986
Poltergeist 3 (1988)
Pork Chop Hill
Porky - Awful Orphan (1949)
Porky - Dough for the Do Do (1949)
Porky - Porky Chops (1949)
Porky - The Wearing of the Grin (1951)
Pornostar (Poruno Suta)
Port of Call (1948)
Portrait of a Lady The
Poseidon Adventure The
Poslusne hlasim (1957)
Possible Loves - Eng - 2000
Post Coitum 2004
Postman Blues (1997)
Power Play (2002)
Presidents Analyst The (1967)
Prick Up Your Ears
Pride and Prejudice
Pride and Prejudice CD1
Pride and Prejudice CD2
Pride and Prejudice CD3
Pride and Prejudice CD4
Pride and Prejudice CD5
Pride and Prejudice CD6
Pride and Prejudice The Making of
Pride and the Passion The
Prime of Miss Jean Brodie The CD1
Prime of Miss Jean Brodie The CD2
Prince and the Showgirl The
Princess Blade The
Princess Bride The
Princess Diaries The CD1
Princess Diaries The CD2
Princess Of Thieves
Princess and the Warrior The
Prisoner of Second Avenue The
Private Life of Sherlock Holmes The (1970)
Project A CD1
Project A CD2
Psycho - Collectors Edition
Public Enemy (2002 Korean) CD1
Public Enemy (2002 Korean) CD2
Public Enemy The
Pulp Fiction (1984)
Pump Up The Volume
Pumping Iron (1977)
Punisher The (2004)
Punisher The 1989
Pupendo (2003) CD1
Pupendo (2003) CD2
Purple Rose Of Cairo The
Purple Sunset (2001)
Pusong Mamon CD1
Pusong Mamon CD2